2017 Conference proceedings

9:00 – 10:00 | Opening session

Thierry de Montbrial

Founder and Chairman of the World Policy Conference

Over the years the WPC has continuously stressed the importance of medium powers and the need for each State to include the structural stability of the international system and its components in formulating their own national interests.

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HM The King Mohammed VI

King of Morocco

In-depth reflection and constructive debate will certainly lead to the emergence of new ideas and fresh solutions that will further improve our countries’ development models.

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Emmanuel Macron

President of France

I could easily take on WPC’s goal as my own – thinking about ways to maintain reasonably open global governance, capable of absorbing shocks while also facilitating desirable changes

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Bartholomew 1st

Archbishop of Constantinople-New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch

We must therefore note the imperative need for dialogue in order to respond to contemporary conflicts, beyond the religious or non-religious nature of these conflicts. Dialogue is not a negotiation. Nor is it a controversy. There are no winners or losers in it.

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10:00 – 10:45 | Plenary session 1

The future of South-East Europe

Thierry de Montbrial

Founder and Chairman of the World Policy Conference

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Ana Brnabić

Prime Minister of the Republic of Serbia

There is basically one key disagreement, but we are trying to find a way to discuss it and talk about it in a way that will bring us closer to a resolution, and show that we do not want to leave this for the generations that will follow.

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Edi Rama

Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania

People are no longer so frustrated and so reluctant to meet with each other, to come and go, to build business projects, to have cultural projects and so on, so it is a new way to live in the Balkans, which is fundamentally in discontinuity with our culture of living in the past.

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Panelists Debate

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10:45 – 12:00 | Plenary session 2

Investing in Africa

Jean-Michel Severino

President of Investisseurs & Partenaires

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Miriem Bensalah-Chaqroun

President of the General Confederation of Moroccan Companies (CGEM)

As investors, we see education as human capital skills. We need skilled human resources, so we can match our competitiveness and productivity.

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Christoph Beier

Vice Chair of the management board, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)

I think we are at the stage to rethink and re-evaluate our joint experiences, and then to come up with a more coherent, more comprehensive, more selective, and more promising development approach.

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Mostafa Terrab

Chairman and CEO, OCP Group

Indeed, we are Arabs, we are part of MENA, but it overlooks the fact that we are fully African, and this has consequences.

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Rémy Rioux

CEO of the Agence française de développement (AFD), Chairperson of the International Development Finance Club (IDFC)

In 1900, there were 100 million Africans. Now, there are 1.2 billion. As on all continents, that will spur endogenous employment and economic growth with a speed and power no other part of the world has ever seen.

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Shinichi Kitaoka

President of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)

In the recent past, I think that resourceless countries are making, generally speaking, better progress, development than resourceful countries.

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Debate

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12:00 – 12:30 | Plenary session 3

With Peter Maurer, President of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

Thierry de Montbrial

Founder and Chairman of the World Policy Conference

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Peter Maurer

President of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

Confidentiality and transparency are two different things. Transparency does not necessarily mean that everybody must know everything all the time. But accountability mechanisms must be set up.

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Debate

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12:45 – 14:30 | Lunch debate

With Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdulrahman bin Jassim Al-Thani, Minister of Foreign Affairs, State of Qatar

Thierry de Montbrial

Founder and Chairman of the World Policy Conference

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Sheikh Mohammed Bin Abdulrahman Bin Jassim Al-Thani

Minister of Foreign Affairs, State of Qatar

We hope that one day, wisdom will prevail and that the countries who are trying to avoid engagement, avoid talking and addressing any of the security concerns, will understand they are our concerns too. They have to come to the table and solve the issues.

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Debate

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14:45 – 16:15 | Plenary session 4

Trends in the Middle East

Miguel Ángel Moratinos

Former Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain

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Youssef Amrani

Chargé de mission, Royal Cabinet, Morocco

The major challenge today in our region, in the entire Arab world is to deconstruct the jihadist narrative and also to propose an alternate narrative.

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Jihad Azour

Director of the Middle East and Central Asia Department, IMF

It is important that we develop a forward-looking perspective on how things can develop in the years to come, so that we can define a certain number of actions that can have an impact and change the economic and social conditions of the people in the region.

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Stuart Eizenstat

Partner, Covington and Burling LLP

The upsurge of nationalist, populist, protectionist, anti-immigrant, anti-Muslim sentiments and the weakening of the political centre are the thread that connects Brexit, the Trump election, the rise of right-wing anti-EU parties and attitudes in the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Austria, Poland and Hungary.

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Renaud Girard

Senior reporter and international columnist at Le Figaro

Does the return of national feeling mean the proliferation of wars, the war of all against everyone in the Middle East?

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Odeh Aburdene

President of OAI Advisors, member of the Council on Foreign Relations

The Arab region has to combine good education, science, and technology to achieve economic growth and jobs for their young population.

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Itamar Rabinovich

President of the Israel Institute, former Ambassador to the United States, Israel

We are now in what we call the post-Arab turmoil phase. We had an Arab Spring. We then had the Arab turmoil and the foundations of several Arab states have been shaken.

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16:15 – 17:30 | Plenary session 5

Trust and truth in the digital age

Steven Erlanger

Chief Diplomatic Correspondent, Europe, New York Times

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Haïm Korsia

Chief Rabbi of France

The truth does not lie in the affirmation of one thing, but in an ethical tension between two positions, which requires finding a balance.

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Susan Liautaud

Founder and Managing Director, Susan Liautaud & Associates Limited

Technology has disempowered state institutions. Starting with the law, we see that legal systems lag very far behind technology, which is constantly changing and at an increasingly fast pace, and the law simply cannot keep up.

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Oliver Bussmann

Founder & Managing Partner at Bussmann Advisory, Zug/Switzerland, former UBS and SAP Global CIO

In the end, we are talking about significant financial benefits, such as simplification, speed and transparency, so the technology itself is a new technology of trust that the community will build and there is momentum across the region that I think is unstoppable.

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Anne-Thida Norodom

Professor of public law at the University of Rouen, France; Member of the Strategic Advisory Board of Ifri

What is at stake is sovereignty in the digital age, the idea that States can protect their laws, protect their values, by justifying the application of their national law to digital activities, knowing that American companies basically have a monopoly on those activities.

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Stefan Heumann

Member of the management board of Stiftung Neue Verantwortung (SNV)

Fake news and disinformation on the Internet have become major challenges. We need to study this problem more carefully to better understand it. Coming up with solutions won’t be easy as we need to avoid undermining freedom of speech.

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Debate

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17:30 – 18:45 | Plenary session 6

The world economy

Richard Cooper

Professor of Economics, Harvard University

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Uri Dadush

Senior Fellow, OCP Policy Center, Non-Resident Scholar, Bruegel

Protectionism in the United States is bound to be profoundly destabilising, both at home and abroad, and it is going to give a very bad example to the developing countries that we hope would be the future of our long-term prosperity.

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Kemal Dervis

Vice President and Director of Global Economy and Development, Brookings Institution, former Minister of Economic Affairs of Turkey

On the one hand, you have this booming technology innovation, and on the other hand, you have measured productivity, which in terms of GDP statistics, is actually slowing down, where growth is slower than it has been for decades.

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Jung Sung-Chun

Vice President, Department of International Macroeconomics & Finance, Korea Institute for International Economic Policy (KIEP)

The real wage growth is weak in the European economies, and that is, I think, the main barrier to the active recovery of the European economies.

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Itoh Motoshige

Emeritus Professor of University of Tokyo and Professor of Gakushuin University, former Advisor to the Prime Minister

There are many discussions about the increasing protectionism, and yes, that is a concern, but at the same time, we can still have some prospects about the increase of a free-trade regime.

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Qiao Yide

Vice Chairman & Secretary General, Shanghai Development Research Foundation

The income inequality has been reduced among different countries, but in each country, no matter whether advanced or developing, how do we solve the wide gap of income inequality?

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Debate

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18:45 – 19:45 | Plenary session 7

The future of transportation: connectivity and governance

Jim Hoagland

Contributing Editor, The Washington Post

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François Barrault

Chairman of Idate/DigiWorld Institute; former CEO of BT Global Services and a BT Group PLC board member

You are not smart because you know better than somebody else, you are smart because you share, and young people and the Internet have put us in the sharing economy.

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Patrick de Castelbajac

Head of Airbus Strategy and International

How close are we to urban air mobility and to the dream of flying around? From a technological standpoint, we are not very far.

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Jean-Yves Le Gall

Chair of the ESA Council and President of the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), France

There is a strong need to conduct trials, to allow industry to design innovations for autonomous vehicles and to give governments enough data to inform policy decisions and legislation.

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Panelists Debate

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20:30 | Dinner debate

With Patrick Pouyanné, Chairman of the Board and CEO, Total

Thierry de Montbrial

Founder and Chairman of the World Policy Conference

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Patrick Pouyanné

Chairman of the Board and CEO, Total

The first huge effort we thus need to make collectively is an effort to save energy and achieve energy efficiency. We need to avoid consuming energy.

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Debate

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09:00 – 10:30 | Plenary session 8

America and the world one year after Trump’s election

Richard Burt

Managing Director, McLarty Associates, former US Ambassador to Germany

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Juan Gallardo

Chairman, Organización Cultiba SAB de CV, Mexico

Where are we right now in the renegotiations of NAFTA? I think we are facing a great opportunity, and at the same time a great threat.

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Yukio Okamoto

President, Okamoto Associates, Inc., former Special Advisor to two Prime Ministers of Japan

Mr. Trump or the United States’ most serious concern is North Korea, which is the same for Japan. It is our highest national security agenda.

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Ryu Jin Roy

Chairman and CEO, Poongsan Group, Republic of Korea

The good days of an entire family immigrating to America for better lives and opportunities are almost over unless you are qualified with some skill sets and are able to speak English

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Alexander Panov

Member of the Advisory Board of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, Professor and Head of the department of diplomacy of MGIMO

Political dialogue on all levels has almost frozen. If witch hunts continue in the United States I cannot see a possibility of improving bilateral relations.

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Hubert Védrine

Former French Minister of Foreign Affairs

The entire planet reacted very well to Trump’s decision on climate change, saying, “Whatever he does, we will continue honouring the agreement.”

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John Sawers

Former head of the Secret Intelligence Service, United Kingdom

China is now replacing America in many places as the supporter and upholder of public goods, like action against climate change and in support of global trade.

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Debate

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10:30 – 11:00 | Coffee break

11:00 – 12:00 | Plenary session 9

Artificial intelligence and the future of human labor

Ali Aslan

TV host and journalist, Deutsche Welle TV

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Masood Ahmed

President, Center for global Development, former Director, Middle East and Central Asia Department, IMF

Artificial Intelligence is happening, and it is coming much faster than we anticipated.

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Mari Kiviniemi

Deputy Secretary-General, OECD; Former Prime Minister of Finland

When it comes to the basics of elementary education, people need a mix of strong cognitive and soft skills, to complement their ICT skills.

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Holger Mey

Vice President, Advanced Concepts, Airbus

Once we start with automation and autonomous systems we automatically run into liability problems.

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Patrick Nicolet

Group Executive Board Member, Capgemini

The way we look at the world compared to the past is fundamentally different and the type of work organisation will be completely distributed, so the hierarchical, social model, none of our institutions are geared to address these elements.

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Debate

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12:00 – 13:15 | Plenary session 10

The future of trade and international investments

Nicolas Barré

Managing Director, Les Echos

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Marcus Noland

Executive Vice President and Director of Studies, Peterson Institute for International Economics

The real threat is the interaction between the macro policy and the trade policy.

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Bark Taeho

President, Lee&Ko Global Commerce Institute, former Minister for Trade, Republic of Korea

There seems to be a growing consensus about the need to help all citizens share the opportunities and benefits of trade liberalisation.

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Francis Gurry

Director General of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

The vacuum that is being left by the policies of the current Trump administration is creating an opportunity for many countries to move into the space, and in particular China.

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Stefan Mair

Member of the Executive Board, Federation of German Industries (BDI)

There is no alternative to resort to global governance, even if it means weakening national sovereignty. We have to strengthen supranational governance in the European Union.

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Yi Xiaozhun

Deputy Director-General, WTO

We must be aware that many people feel disconnected from economic progress and attitudes towards trade and globalisation have hardened recently.

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Debate

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13:30 – 15:00 | Lunch debate

With Ahmet Davutoglu, Former Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey

Thierry De Montbrial

Founder and Chairman of the World Policy Conference

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Ahmet Davutoglu

Former Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey

We need integrity, inclusivity, institutionalisation, interest optimisation and implementation of decisions.

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Debate

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15:15 – 18:15 | Parallel workshops

Workshop #1 – Finance and economy

John Lipsky

Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy Institute at Johns Hopkins University’s Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS); former First Deputy Managing Director, IMF

Despite the good news, US business investment has remained relatively weak, which explains the slow productivity growth that has been accompanied, despite the low unemployment, by low labour participation.

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Akinari Horii

Special Advisor and a member of the Board of Directors of the Canon Institute for Global Studies, former Assistant Governor of the Bank of Japan

In economics terms, inflation expectation is more adaptive than rational, or more backward looking than forward looking. People have to see actual inflation through their eyes, before they believe that the inflation is reality.

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Bertrand Badré

Founder and CEO, Blue Orange Capital; Former Managing Director, World Bank

For 10 years we were miserable talking about the Eurozone and for once, I think it is okay.

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André Levy-Lang

Former Chairman & CEO of Banque Paribas, Affiliate emeritus professor in Finance at Paris-Dauphine University

I think that France is now realising that it has to take care of itself and not wait for Germany and I think that this is what is going to happen.

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Jeffrey Frieden

Professor of government at Harvard University

I think that one of the unheralded and perhaps unexpected successes of the last 10 years was the extent of multilateral cooperation in the aftermath of the September/October 2008 crisis.

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Raed Charafeddine

First Vice- Governor of the Central Bank of Lebanon

What the Central Bank did was actually stimulating the economy and at the same time, taking the precautions so as not to impact inflation.

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Debate

Old sins cast long shadows and the shadow that Argentina’s restructuring casts on the region and beyond is still quite dark.

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Daniel Daianu

Member of the Board of the Central Bank of Romania; former Finance Minister of Romania

In spite of the efforts to maintain what is called the liberal international order, deep currents are working against it.

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Debate

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Workshop #1 – Finance and economy – Synopsis

Bertrand Badré

Founder and CEO, Blue Orange Capital; Former Managing Director, World Bank

The system needs to think out of the box and is paralysed, because the system does not allow you to think out of the box. How can we move this?

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André Levy-Lang

Former Chairman & CEO of Banque Paribas, Affiliate emeritus professor in Finance at Paris-Dauphine University

I think that there is no bank in Europe that creates a systemic risk. The European banking system is sound, but there is a problem in terms of profitability […] partly because of the vagaries of the capital markets.

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Raed Charafeddine

First Vice- Governor of the Central Bank of Lebanon

What the Central Bank did was actually stimulating the economy and at the same time, taking the precautions so as not to impact inflation.

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Daniel Daianu

Member of the Board of the Central Bank of Romania; former Finance Minister of Romania

Financial innovation goes on and toxic products are put on the market and used, in spite of an allegedly more effective regulation and supervision system.

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Jeffrey Frieden

Professor of government at Harvard University

I worry that, when the next crisis comes, intervention by the major powers, and in particular by the US, will be more destructive than constructive.

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Akinari Horii

Special Advisor and a member of the Board of Directors of the Canon Institute for Global Studies, former Assistant Governor of the Bank of Japan

The dearth of active mangers makes the market prone to herd behavior, which could induce runs in the market when a shock is applied to it.

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John Lipsky

Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy Institute at Johns Hopkins University’s Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS); former First Deputy Managing Director, IMF

The IMF’s lack of an effective crisis prevention instrument remains a systemic weakness that can and should be addressed.

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Workshop #2 – Energy and climate

Nobuo Tanaka

Former Executive Director of the International Energy Agency, Chairman of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation

The energy sector is probably one of the most impacted by the unpredictability or uncertainty of the US policy.

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Olivier Appert

Chairman of the Conseil Français de l’Energie

I will make a non‑politically correct statement by saying that Trump’s energy policy will have no direct impact on the CO2 emissions of the US.

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André Caillé

Director of Junex Inc., former Chairman of the World Energy Council and Deputy Minister of the Environment of Quebec

It is not only the withdrawal from the Paris Accord but also the resurrection of coal fired power plants, supposedly clean, and the retirement of many regulations that could greatly impact US emissions.

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Lee Hye-Min

G20 Sherpa, Ambassador for International Economic Affairs, Republic of Korea

The developing countries led by India and Turkey in particular stress the importance of parallel implementation of the Paris Agreement obligations, which are mitigation, adaptation and climate financing.

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Tatsuo Masuda

Visiting Professor, Nagoya University of Commerce and Business Graduate School, Japan

We should not wait for governments to act, but rather communities, companies and civil societies can do everything.

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Ladislas Paszkiewicz

Senior Vice President Strategy and Climate, Total

The difficulty for us as a corporation is how to supply this energy while at the same time decreasing our carbon footprint, which of course energy has an impact on.

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Friedbert Pflüger

Director, European Centre for Energy and Resource Security, King’s College London

We will continue to need oil for a long time, especially in the developing nations, but gas can be a low-emission partner of renewables in the long run.

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Discussion

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Debate

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Workshop #2 – Energy and climate – Synopsis

Nobuo Tanaka

Former Executive Director of the International Energy Agency, Chairman of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation

To produce a transport revolution, very strong government intervention is necessary.

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Lee Hye-Min

G20 Sherpa, Ambassador for International Economic Affairs, Republic of Korea

The Paris Agreement is irreversible and the global community will move towards its implementation, though the road ahead will be very bumpy.

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Friedbert Pflüger

Director, European Centre for Energy and Resource Security, King’s College London

Politicians tend to set goals for a distant future, in which they cannot be held accountable anymore.

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Olivier Appert

Chairman of the Conseil Français de l’Energie

Trump’s energy policy will have no direct impact on the CO2 emissions of the US.

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André Caillé

Director of Junex Inc., former Chairman of the World Energy Council and Deputy Minister of the Environment of Quebec

Natural gas should be used to replace coal.

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Tatsuo Masuda

Visiting Professor, Nagoya University of Commerce and Business Graduate School, Japan

I think technology is a real game-changer in fighting climate change. Even people’s mindset will change accordingly.

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Ladislas Paszkiewicz

Senior Vice President Strategy and Climate, Total

The difficulty for us as a corporation is how to supply this energy while at the same time decreasing our carbon footprint, which of course energy has an impact on.

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Workshop #3 – China

Park, In-kook

President, Korea Foundation for Advanced Studies (KFAS)

In the wake of 19th Party Congress, what kind of economic reforms will we see? What impact will they have on the world economy?

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Jia Qingguo

Dean of the School of International Studies of Peking University

The message is that you do not have to follow the Western approach in your development. Instead, you can find you own path of development according to your situation.

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Qiao Yide

Vice Chairman & Secretary General, Shanghai Development Research Foundation

The conclusion is that China is moving towards the centre of the world stage. The detail is that we will continue to make a great contribution to the global GDP growth.

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Douglas Paal

Vice President, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

There are many more positives in addressing the challenge that China presents to the long-term American presence in the region.

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Richard Cooper

Professor of Economics, Harvard University

These are poor countries west of China; they can use some help, and if China is willing to give the financing, we should applaud it so long as it turns out well.

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Bark Taeho

President, Lee&Ko Global Commerce Institute, former Minister for Trade, Republic of Korea

After the conclusion of the Party Congress, there seems to be an agreement that China’s policy of reform and opening will be continued.

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Yuichi Hosoya

Professor, Department of Political Science, Keio University

Without strong American commitment, I think that Japan has to change a previous strategy for the region, to create something like TPP without the United States.

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Jean-François Copé

Mayor of Meaux, former delegate Minister of the Budget, France

I think that the European Union today is ready, provided it has its own capacity to continue and intensify the structural reforms, to be at a good level to be one of the major partners for China and Asia.

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Debate

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Workshop #3 – China – Synopsis

Douglas Paal

Vice President, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

The United States ought to be coming forward with a policy of co‑optation of China’s new desire to be a more responsible stakeholder in the world.

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Park, In-kook

President, Korea Foundation for Advanced Studies (KFAS)

The most critical factor is whether the Trump administration continues to maintain the North Korea challenge as its top priority.

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Bark Taeho

President, Lee&Ko Global Commerce Institute, former Minister for Trade, Republic of Korea

If certain industries enter into the restructuring process, the implementation of the market opening policy may face difficulties and possibly be delayed.

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Richard Cooper

Professor of Economics, Harvard University

These are poor countries west of China; they can use some help, and if China is willing to give the financing, we should applaud it so long as it turns out well.

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Jia Qingguo

Dean of the School of International Studies of Peking University

The principal contradiction facing Chinese society is the contradiction between the unbalanced and inadequate development and the people’s ever-growing need for a better life.

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Qiao Yide

Vice Chairman & Secretary General, Shanghai Development Research Foundation

The Chinese people is still and will remain for a long time, in the initial stages of socialism.

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Yuichi Hosoya

Professor, Department of Political Science, Keio University

It is essential for the Japanese Prime Minister or government to try and invite the United States to come back to the regional order as a leader of this region.

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Jean-François Copé

Mayor of Meaux, former delegate Minister of the Budget, France

Globalisation is changing shape and the “new Silk Road” symbolises this change.

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Workshop #4 – Russia in twenty years

Igor Yurgens

Chairman of the Management Board of the Institute of Contemporary Development, Russia

The fourth industrial will probably make the distances in Russia, that were our curse in many ways, a nonissue.

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Alexander Dynkin

President, Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO), Russia

If nothing were to happen and Russia were to continue with the growth of an average of 2% a year, what does it mean in the global hierarchy?

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Michel Foucher

Chair of applied Geopolitics at College of World Studies; Former Director of the policy planning staff of the French Foreign Ministry

Russia is certainly one of the countries that took less benefit from globalisation.

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Donald Johnston

Chair of the McCall MacBain Foundation; Former Secretary-General of the OECD

Russia, with its rich human resource base, has the capacity to become once again a major global force in twenty years.

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Yaroslav Lissovolik

Chief Economist, Eurasian Development Bank

A key issue for Russia will be quality rather than quantity. In terms of quantity, Russia is currently one of the highest recipients of labour markets in the world.

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Artem Malgin

Vice-rector for general affairs and corporate relations, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO)

There will be strong growth with Central and Eastern Europe and the Balkans, because now, there are no more emotions when it comes to Russia’s policy towards the Balkans.

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Alexander Panov

Member of the Advisory Board of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, Professor and Head of the department of diplomacy of MGIMO

For Russia and China, if both countries would like to be the leaders of the world, it will be a chance to create a new international order using new international laws.

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Debate

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Workshop #4 – Russia in twenty years – Synopsis

Igor Yurgens

Chairman of the Management Board of the Institute of Contemporary Development, Russia

The fourth industrial will probably make the distances in Russia, that were our curse in many ways, a nonissue.

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Alexander Dynkin

President, Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO), Russia

The demise of empires almost always brings tectonic shifts in the world order, and it also leaves long‑lasting territorial conflicts.

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Michel Foucher

Chair of applied Geopolitics at College of World Studies; Former Director of the policy planning staff of the French Foreign Ministry

If we are not able to set up a new European order in the next 20 years, a new European concert, we will remain weak in the international sphere and be unable to promote stability in the critical neighbourhood that EU and Russia are sharing.

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Donald Johnston

Chair of the McCall MacBain Foundation; Former Secretary-General of the OECD

Russia, with its rich human resource base, has the capacity to become once again a major global force in twenty years.

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Yaroslav Lissovolik

Chief Economist, Eurasian Development Bank

Russia is doing it together with the European Economic Union, but there are dozens of countries that are waiting in line to forge a free trade area with Russia and its Eurasian partners.

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Artem Malgin

Vice-rector for general affairs and corporate relations, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO)

In 20 years, Russia will be much more self‑centred and self‑concerned, with policy and ambitions made-to-measure.

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Alexander Panov

Member of the Advisory Board of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, Professor and Head of the department of diplomacy of MGIMO

For Russia and China, if both countries would like to be the leaders of the world, it will be a chance to create a new international order using new international laws.

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20:00 – 20:30 | Cocktail

20:30 | Gala Dinner

With Nasser Bourita, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Morocco

Thierry de Montbrial

Founder and Chairman of the World Policy Conference

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Nasser Bourita

Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Morocco

Morocco does not consider itself a “power” (sub-regional, regional or international) but a “hub” of diplomacy, action and ideas for building an imaginative new paradigm.

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08:30 – 09:30 | Reports from parallel workshops

Workshop #1 – Report 1

John Lipsky

Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy Institute at Johns Hopkins University’s Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS); former First Deputy Managing Director, IMF

Even though in the medium-term there are certainly fundamental issues that need to be faced, the principal risks in the near-term are those stemming from political or geopolitical developments.

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Workshop #2 – Report 2

Nobuo Tanaka

Former Executive Director of the International Energy Agency, Chairman of the Sasakawa Peace Foundation

International coordination is necessary, but private sector efforts will yield a very significant improvement for the future of climate change mitigation.

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Workshop #3 – Report 3

Park, In-kook

President, Korea Foundation for Advanced Studies (KFAS)

In the next five years, China will have more continuity than change in foreign policy, and there will be more of a Xi imprint, and Chinese foreign policy will be more pragmatic.

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Workshop #4 – Report 4

Igor Yurgens

Chairman of the Management Board of the Institute of Contemporary Development, Russia

Negative scenario: in 20 years, we are in a real fight between autocracy and democracy, and positive scenario: we manage to build bridges, to create new ideas, and we make a huge step forward in terms of global governance, of togetherness.

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09:30 – 11:00 | Plenary session 11

The European Union and the world

Ali Aslan

TV host and journalist, Deutsche Welle TV

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Richard Burt

Managing Director, McLarty Associates, former US Ambassador to Germany

We are going through a really crucial and historical change in which the message from Washington to Europe and the EU is now: ‘You are on your own.’

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Steven Erlanger

Chief Diplomatic Correspondent, Europe, New York Times

The Germans are desperate to have a France that is in better shape, partly to share the responsibility and the blame for European leadership, because there is a lot of anti-German feeling in Southern and Eastern Europe.

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Elisabeth Guigou

President of The Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation for the Dialogue Between Cultures, Former Member of Parliament and President of the Commission of Foreign Affairs at the Assemblée nationale, France

But Brexit is also an opportunity for the 27, who, for the moment, have stood united in the negotiations in order to overcome their divisions, agree on their common interests and take their destiny in the global world into their hands.

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Bogdan Klich

Senator, Minority Leader of the Senat, former minister of Defense, Poland

That is why, in this deteriorating environment, we have to do something with our European capabilities in the sphere of security and defence. It means that Europe should take more responsibility for its own security.

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Michael Lothian

Former Member of Parliament, United Kingdom

One of the keys to the change we are seeing around us in the world is the growth in anti‑establishment feeling.

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Yukio Okamoto

President, Okamoto Associates, Inc., former Special Advisor to two Prime Ministers of Japan

Who in the world can we partner with? There is only the EU. The EU is the best partner for Japan in this new campaign.

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Debate

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11:00 – 11:30 | Plenary session 12

With Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj, Former President of Mongolia

Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj

Former President of Mongolia

We are really proud of our history, we are really proud of our present state, and Mongolia is the only liberal political and economic establishment since 1990 in the region.

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Debate

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11:30 – 12:30 | Plenary session 13

The development of Africa

Sean Cleary

Founder and Executive Vice-Chairman of the FutureWorld Foundation and Chairman of Strategic Concepts (Pty) Ltd, South Africa

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Nizar Baraka

Chairman, Economic, Social and Environmental Council (CESE)

How to integrate our entire continent? (…) I believe that this is the real bold move that will enable us to enjoy endogenous growth, growth that carries Africa, and that will truly make Africa the master of its fate, looking ahead to a time of involvement and integration with its partners.

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Cheikh Tidiane Gadio

President of the Institute for Pan-African Strategies (IPS), Former Foreign Minister of Senegal

For Africans and their friends, it is time for a change in paradigm; it is time to reflect again on how to save this continent.

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Aminata Touré

Former Prime Minister of Senegal

We also need to build solidarity, to tackle challenges such as corruption, terrorism, illegal migration, climate change impact, and solidarity in sharing progress.

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Lionel Zinsou

Co-President of the Fondation AfricaFrance, Former Prime Minister of Benin, Former President, PAI Partners

We have no economic suspense, but we have a political and social suspense, because our model does not resolve any of our social problems on its own, unless we design policies that are extremely well-suited to this very particular constraint.

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Debate

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13:00 – 14:30 | Lunch debate

With Aziz Mekouar, Ambassador of Morocco, in charge of the negotiations on climate

Thierry de Montbrial

Founder and Chairman of the World Policy Conference

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Aziz Mekouar

Ambassador of Morocco, in charge of the negotiations on climate

If you look at all the decisions taken by many countries, especially China, but also in Norway and other countries (…), we see a lot happening in terms of research, in terms of science, and in terms of transforming science into implementation.

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Debate

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15:00 – 16:30 | Plenary session 14

Security in Asia

Marcus Noland

Executive Vice President and Director of Studies, Peterson Institute for International Economics

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Yim Sung-Joon

Senior Advisor at Lee International IP & Law Group; Former Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs and National Security Advisor to the President, Republic of Korea

Continuation of stringent sanctions on North Korea plus extended US deterrence and show of strength would be the best option to deter North Korean provocation.

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Yuichi Hosoya

Professor, Department of Political Science, Keio University

The Japanese strategy is, of course, to avoid war but, at the same time to try to denuclearise North Korea.

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Jia Qingguo

Professor and Dean of the School of International Studies of Peking University

The good news is that President Xi and President Trump seem to have gotten along with each other so far, it is quite impressive that these two strong characters find each other worthy of respect.

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Michael Yeoh

Founder & CEO of the Asian Strategy and Leadership Institute (ASLI)

We need to have more intelligence sharing among countries in Asia because that is so important in the fight against terrorism.

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Jusuf Wanandi

Co-founder, Vice Chairman of the Board of Trustees and Senior Fellow of the Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) Foundation, Indonesia

On the one hand the rise of China, and especially with President Xi Jinping’s strong leadership, and on the other the election of President Trump, with his capriciousness, have created many uncertainties for us, because we cannot follow his thinking and where he would like to go.

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Mayankote Kelath Narayanan

Former Governor of West Bengal, The Raj Bhavan, India

Afghanistan may be in South Asia, but I think it is the heart of Asia.

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Debate

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16:30 – 17:45 | Plenary session 15

Young Leaders session

Patrick Nicolet

Group Executive Board member, Capgemini

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Natalie Cartwright

Co-founder of Finn.ai

I think AI is going to bring amazing changes. Our challenge is how we build governance structures, policies, and systems that are as nimble, innovative, and equitable as the companies they will support.

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Edouard Nattée

Founder and CEO of Fox Intelligence

Transparency and accountability are the only way towards change. Starting by setting transparency as the default mode, while always protecting privacy and personal information, is the first step any leader should take.

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Allen Ali Mohammadi

Co-founder, Hippogriff AB

We are living in a time where we have access to advanced technologies and high‑quality infrastructure that can empower us to tackle the challenges we are facing.

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Arthur Stril

Co-founder, Zinc

We are on the cusp of a healthcare revolution and that there is truly a time, which is now, where healthcare is going to profoundly change, especially in the way it is delivered.

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Aurélien Billot

Head of the Commercial and development policies Unit at the General Secretariat for European Affairs, France

In this thriving environment, we need an entity with democratic ownership that can address these issues of data governance, of access versus security, and of a level playing field, and I think that the EU has a chance here and could help fill this gap for all of us.

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Debate

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17:45 – 19:45 | Plenary session 16

The state of the world

Jim Hoagland

Contributing Editor, The Washington Post

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Assia Bensalah Alaoui

Ambassador-at-large of HM the King of Morocco

It is clear that if you do not give people the chance to take up real issues in their societies, you do not provide the sustainable foundation for security. That is what we are trying to do in Morocco, thanks to the ambitious democratisation programme.

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Kriengsak Chareonwongsak

Former Prime Ministerial Advisor of Thailand, Senior Fellow Harvard University and Chairman, Nation-Building Institute

There is a need for revolution coming that will change the entire architecture of the new global order so that economic, political, and social paradigms will be shifted and changed because today we experience a broken world that we cannot repair.

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Ju Chul Ki

President of the Overseas Koreans Foundation, Former Senior Secretary for Foreign Affairs and National Security, Office of the President of the Republic of Korea

It is my view that the Iranian nuclear deal should be upheld. It would be very difficult to envisage another solution. I hope, personally, that the US Congress will take some decision on this matter.

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Ashwani Kumar

Senior Advocate Supreme Court; Former Union Minister for Law & Justice, India

We are all individually and collectively duty bound – not once, not twice, but over and over again, to repeat what we believe is right because as Dante cautioned us – the hottest places in hell, said Dante, are reserved for those who in period of moral crises, which we face today, preserve their neutrality.

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Mona Makram Ebeid

Egyptian Senator, Distinguished Lecturer, Political Science Department, American University in Cairo

The corollary to the growing influence of the security establishment has been the neutralizing of civilian politics. Civil society is under relentless pressure and its activities have been severely curtailed.

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Fathallah Oualalou

Former Minister of Economy and Finance, Morocco

From the torment between this globalised present and the depths of culture and history, we must move on to managing coexistence between modernity, globalisation, and the depths of historical and cultural specificity.

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Meir Sheetrit

Member of Parliament, Israel

I believe the only solution to reach peace with the Middle East is through what we call the Saudi Initiative, or the Arab Peace Initiative.

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Yukari Niwa Yamashita

Board Member, Director, The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan (IEEJ)

I believe that we do not need more signatures on a piece of paper, but we need far more conviction and actions.

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19:45 | Envoi

Thierry de Montbrial

Founder and Chairman of the World Policy Conference

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2016 Conference proceedings

08:30 – 09:30 | Welcome coffee

09:30 – 10:30 | Opening session

Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the World Policy Conference

A quarter of a century after the end of the cold war, the age is no longer conducive to dreaming of naïve globalisation and of the end of History. But we must learn to live better with globalisation as it really is, i.e. with a degree of interdependence that will deepen even more considerably.

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Sheikh Abdullah bin Naser bin Khalifa Al-Thani

Prime Minister, Qatar

We are probably all aware that our contemporary world is going through an unprecedented phase, abundant with grave challenges to safety, stability and sustainable development in the shadow of the impaired world order that suffers from double standards in dealing with people’s affairs.

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Jean-Marc Ayrault

Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development, France

Faced with the world’s disorders, the only response is to join our forces, to show solidarity and to find collective solutions to shared problems. We need to continue our action. To act ceaselessly. To act while remaining loyal to our principles. Never to give up. That is France’s conviction.

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Jim Hoagland

Contributing Editor, The Washington Post

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Ahmet Davutoglu

Former Prime Minister of Turkey

The question is clear. Are we going towards global governance or towards world disorder? If you visit these capitals, you will see that there is a source of concern everywhere. What will be the future of international systems? What will be the future of the EU? What will be the policy of the new American president, Donald Trump? What will be the future of the Middle East?

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10:35 – 10:45 | Special guest

Ahmet Davutoglu

Former Prime Minister of Turkey

10:45 – 12:30 | Plenary session 1

The future of the Middle East

Jim Hoagland

Contributing Editor, The Washington Post

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Youssef Amrani

Royal Cabinet, Morocco

Fear took over and now, globalisation is seen as the root of all evil. So do we abandon the globalisation experiment? Or do we try and save it as it is and engage in a useless fight to save “business as usual”. Of course, the answer is neither.

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Saeb Erekat

Palestinian Chief Negotiator, Palestine

Mark my words very carefully; what is going on in the Arab world is exactly what Europe went through on 15 March 1848, when Chancellor Metternich had to flee his palace after three weeks of peaceful demonstrations in Vienna.

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Jim Hoagland

Contributing Editor, The Washington Post

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Xiaosheng Gong

China’s Special Envoy on the Middle East Issue

First, passing initially through Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Libya, those four hot spots in crisis should be considered together. The international community should not emphasise the crisis in just one or two and forget others, especially Palestine issues.

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Riad Hijab

Former Prime Minister, Syria

This escalation of the war waged by the regime and its Russian and Iranian allies falls under the shadow of pivotal transformations at all regional and international levels.

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Miguel Ángel Moratinos

Former Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain

We can and should try to solve this lasting conflict because instability in the Middle East will continue if the Palestinian Israeli issue is not resolved, even if we want to defeat Daesh or make peace with Syria internally.

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Jim Hoagland

Contributing Editor, The Washington Post

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Abdulaziz Othman bin Sager

Chairman of the Gulf Research Center, Saudi Arabia

Today, six years later, we could say that this Arab Spring was only able to achieve a few of its objectives.

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Jim Hoagland

Contributing Editor, The Washington Post

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Itamar Rabinovich

President of the Israel Institute, Distinguished Global Professor at New York University (NYU) and Distinguished Fellow at the Brookings Institution

What we are witnessing now is the collapse of a large number of states, at least six or seven states in the region meet the classic definition of failed state.

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Panelists Debate

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Debate

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12:30 – 13:30 | Plenary session 2

Ethics and Government-Business relations

Susan Liautaud

Vice Chair of Court London School of Economics and Political Science, Founder and Managing Director Susan Liautaud & Associates Limited

Kriengsak Chareonwongsak

President of the Institute of Future Studies for Development; former Prime Ministerial Adviser, Thailand

The main idea is that all sectors, public, private and people, should collaborate fully to take charge of social well being.

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Mari Kiviniemi

Deputy Secretary-General, OECD; Former Prime Minister of Finland

The ease with which individuals can avoid tax by shifting profits offshore has been simplified and as a result, multinational companies can move their most valuable assets to offshore low or no tax centres, where value creation does not happen.

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Ashwani Kumar

Senior Advocate to the Supreme Court; Former Union Minister for Law & Justice, India

While the technological revolution has empowered people with unprecedented access to information and knowledge, questions arise about the ethical dimensions of a technology driven society.

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Bruno Lafont

Co-chairman of the Board of Directors, LafargeHolcim

There is one interesting topic, which is rarely spoken about, which is whether we are all working for the general interest.

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Panelists Debate

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Debate

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13:30 – 14:45 | Lunch debate

Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the World Policy Conference

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Guillaume Pepy

Chairman of SNCF’s Executive Board and Chairman and CEO of SNCF Mobilités

The only option we have is to address three game changes: the impact of climate change, of course; the urban population explosion; and the increasing scarcity of resources.

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15:00 – 15:30 | Plenary session 3

Turkey’s European and international role

Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the World Policy Conference

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Ali Babacan

Member of Parliament and former Deputy Prime Minister, Turkey

In these kinds of organisations, the followers are asked to stop thinking, close their minds, lock their minds and do every kind of crazy things.

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Debate

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15:30 – 16:30 | Plenary session 4

Health: Technological development and global governance

John Andrews

Contributing Editor, The Economist

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Sheikh Dr. Mohammed bin Hamad Al-Thani

Director of Public Health, Ministry of Public Health in Qatar

Modern technology has changed the structure and organization of the entire medical field.

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Christian Bréchot

President of the Institut Pasteur, France

Scientists in the field of biomedical research do need infrastructures, equipment and technological platforms. This is at several levels.

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Zhu Yan-Mei

Executive Vice President of the Beijing Genomics Institute

Last year, from the year 2000, the human genomics project has almost completely deciphered the genome.

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Panelists Debate

You are making such advances in science and medicine. At some point, there must already be ethical boundaries.

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16:30 – 18:00 | Plenary session 5

Technological change and the New Social Contract

Masood Ahmed

Director, Middle East and Central Asia Department, International Monetary Fund

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Tobby Simon

Founder and Chairman, Synergia Foundation

Every couple of generations, we script new social contracts, and they keep evolving to better reflect our social norms and values.

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Chang Dae-Whan

Chairman and Publisher of Maekyung Media Group, Republic of Korea

The fourth industrial revolution covers IoT, and I just learned IoL, which means life. There are robotic sensors, driverless cars or drones, and the genetic engineering, and fintech.

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Patrick Nicolet

Group Executive Board Member, Capgemini

There is no question that technological change is drastically disrupting both workplaces and the social environment.

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Sébastien Bazin

Chairman & CEO, AccorHotels

You are going to have more job destruction over the next 3 4 years than job creation. You have a gap of time for people to adapt to this new evolution.

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Debate

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18:00 – 18:30 | Coffee break

18:30 – 19:00 | Plenary session 6

UK after Brexit

John Kerr

Member of the House of Lords, former British Ambassador to the United States and the EU

The die will not be cast irrevocably when, by March, the government triggers the withdrawal proceedings.

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Debate

Are we making too big a deal of Brexit? […] Basically, the UK has become a lot more competitive than it was before.

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19:00 – 19:45 | Plenary session 7

Security and Economic Development in Africa

Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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Cheikh Tidiane Gadio

President of IPS, Former Foreign Minister of Senegal

Africa is gradually becoming the epicentre of global terrorism.

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Nathalie Delapalme

Executive Director, Research and Policy, Mo Ibrahim Foundation

Africa is 54 countries with 54 geographies, 54 different histories, 54 often-divergent trajectories.

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Panelists Debate

Africa is becoming a battleground for the world’s great powers. The tragedy is that Africans are often sitting on the sidelines.

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Debate

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20:30 | Dinner debate

Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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Chey Tae-won

Chairman, SK Group, Republic of Korea

Instead of genuinely contributing to society, many CSR activities tend to focus on building the company’s image and promoting the brand.

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Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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Kevin Rudd

President of the Asia Society Policy Institute in New York, Australia’s 26th Prime Minister and Former Foreign Minister

It can be argued that historical forces of inertia, entropy and chaos constitute the “steady state” of international relations.

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08:30 – 09:45 | Plenary session 8

European Union: what next?

Steven Erlanger

London bureau chief of The New York Times

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Elisabeth Guigou

Member of the French Parliament and President of the Commission of Foreign Affairs at the Assemblée nationale

The shock of the Brexit provides all the more evidence of the preexisting necessity to reshape the European project.

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Norbert Röttgen

Chairman of the Foreign Affairs’ Committee, Bundestag, former German Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety

We are at a point and situation not seen since World War II. There have not been so many crises at the same time, abroad and internally, in Europe and confronting Europe.

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Panelists Debate

Germany still has a long way to go in this objective of a greater contribution to a foreign and defence policy. The only option I can see is for France and Germany to work on more coherent policies.

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10:00 – 12:30 | Parallel workshops

Workshop #1 – Workshop 1: Finance and Economy

Jean-Claude Trichet

President of Bruegel; Former President of the European Central Bank

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John Lipsky

Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy Institute at Johns Hopkins University’s Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS)

Taking stock of where things stand today in regards of those goals, I would conclude that none of the [G20] goals have been attained.

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Raed Charafeddine

First Vice- Governor of the Central Bank of Lebanon

After the 2008 crisis, Central Banks have shifted from being pure regulators overseeing the financial sectors into important players in the real economies.

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Daniel Daianu

Member of the Board, Central Bank of Romania, former Finance Minister of Romania

The impact of the financial crisis is also significant: estimates are that the Great Recession has brought GDP potential growth below 1,5% in the EU for the next 5-10 years.

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Hur Kyung-Wook

Senior Advisor to Bae, Kim & Lee LLC; Former Vice Minister of Strategy and Finance, Republic of Korea, former Ambassador of Korea to the OECD

Most Asian countries have turned to domestic consumption as well as investment, fuelled by Asian money both domestic and from abroad as well.

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Kiyoto Ido

Vice Chairman, Institute for International Economic Studies, Japan

Abenomics is based on the three arrows of monetary easing, flexible fiscal policy and growth strategy.

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André Levy-Lang

Affiliate emeritus Professor at Paris-Dauphine University, former CEO of Banque Paribas

Banks and insurance companies are no longer active players in capital markets and they used to be one of the stabilising forces in capital markets.

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Debate

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Workshop #2 – Workshop 2: Energy and Climate

Donald Johnston

Chair of the McCall MacBain Foundation, Geneva, Switzerland, Former Secretary-General of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in Paris

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Olivier Appert

Chairman of the Conseil Français de l’Energie

Every two years, a new Norway has been put into production in the US, and the US has become the most significant oil producer, surpassing Saudi Arabia and Russia.

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Ladislas Paszkiewicz

Vice President Strategy & Climate, Total

Oil and gas is responsible for about 37% of the GHG emissions […]

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Debate 1

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Tatsuo Masuda

Professor, Nagoya University of Commerce and Business Graduate School, Japan

Maybe technology is the solution to all the problems that we face regarding energy and climate change.

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Daniela Lulache

Chief Executive Officer, Nuclearelectrica, former Counselor of the Vice-Governor of the National Bank of Romania

We cannot reach this target of decarbonisation and we cannot solve all the climate change problems that are occurring without nuclear.

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Lee Hye-Min

G20 Sherpa and Ambassador for International Economic Affairs, Republic of Korea, Former Ambassador to France, former Deputy Minister for Trade, Republic of Korea

We need to implement a commitment regarding mitigation and adaptation, but developed countries should provide financial means.

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Debate 2

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Workshop #3 – Workshop 3: China in transition

Park In-Kook

President, Korea Foundation for Advanced Studies (KFAS), former Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations

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Jia Qingguo

Professor and Dean of the School of International Studies of Peking University

The country biggest challenge is how to sort out the rules so that people can do things legitimately and quickly.

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Qiao Yide

Vice Chairman & Secretary General, Shanghai Development Research Foundation

The Chinese government defines six industries as ‘emerging industries with strategic importance’: cyber economy; high-end manufacturing; digital economy; green and low carbon; bio economy.

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Richard Cooper

Professor of Economics, Harvard University

What can we expect of a Trump administration? And how will it affect China?

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Douglas Paal

Vice President, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

It will be a good time for China. That is widely felt in the business community and outside official ranks.

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Bark Taeho

Professor, GSIS, Seoul National University

The Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations is stalled going nowhere.

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Michel Foucher

Chair of applied Geopolitics at College of World Studies (FMSH-ENS), former Director of the policy planning staff of the French Foreign Ministry

It’s important to understand that the general context has changed. […] So classical Realpolitik is the new norm, with areas of influence, pacts and alliances, logistical and military facilities abroad.

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Yuichi Hosoya

Professor, Department of Political Science, Keio University

President Trump will focus on an ‘America First’ policy, which means that the United States will reduce in some way its engagement in East Asia.

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Debate

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12:45 – 14:15 | Lunch debate

Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the World Policy Conference

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Shivshankar Menon

Chairman of the Advisory Board of the Institute of Chinese Studies in New Delhi, and Distinguished Fellow at the Brookings Institution, Washington, Former National Security Adviser to the Prime Minister, India

India is undergoing massive internal change, so rapid that we really still have to come to terms with it.

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14:15 – 16:00 | Plenary session 9

Post-American Elections

Jim Hoagland

Contributing Editor, The Washington Post

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François Bujon de l’Estang

President, FBE International Consultants, former Chairman of Citigroup France

Many questions also have been posed about a deeply divided America, which was really the background to this election.

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Ichiro Fujisaki

Chairman of the Institute of International Relations, Sophia University, Japan, Former Ambassador of Japan to the United States

What will happen? On three fronts, policy may have to be watched in the following areas: environment, trade and the Middle East.

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Jin Roy Ryu

Chairman and CEO, Poongsan Group

President elect Trump’s campaign slogan “Make America great again” captured the hearts of those who voted for him.

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Juan Gallardo

Chairman, Organizacion Cultiba SAB de CV, Mexico

There are also more Mexicans coming back to Mexico than going to the US now for at least two to three years running. The idea of having a well-controlled and properly monitored border has been alive and working strongly.

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Vuk Jeremic

President, Center for International Relations and Sustainable Development (Cirsd), former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Serbia

One can see how Donald Trump’s election victory may serve as a boost to populist movements, ideas, and candidates in the forthcoming Western European elections.

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Wang Jisi

President of the Institute of International and Strategic Studies, Peking University, and professor of the School of International Studies, Peking University

China has been one of the largest beneficiaries of economic globalization, and the next step of reform and opening will continue to depend on open markets and free interflow of capital.

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Ryan Evans

Founder, CEO, Editor – ‎War on the Rocks

We actually have to be prepared for the breakdown of democracy in the United States and perhaps even the introduction of some form of autocracy.

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Debate

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16:00 – 16:30 | Plenary session 10

Space as a major technological and governance adventure

Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the World Policy Conference

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Jean-Yves Le Gall

President of the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), President of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF), co-Chair of the Council of the European Space Agency

Satellites are crucial instruments supporting efforts to curb climate change.

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Debate

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16:30 – 17:00 | Coffee break

17:00 – 18:30 | Plenary session 11

Fighting Terrorism

Justin Vaïsse

Directeur du Centre d’analyse, de prévision et de stratégie du ministère des Affaires étrangères, France

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Sergei Karaganov

Honorary Chairman of the Presidium of the non-governmental Council on Foreign and Defense Policy of Russia, Founder and former Deputy Director of the Institute of Europe of the Academy of Sciences of USSR/Russia

[Terrorist organisations] are also the result of unjustified, totally incompetent and irresponsible intrusion by foreign powers.

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Mayankote Kelath Narayanan

Former Governor of West Bengal, The Raj Bhavan, Former Senior Advisor and National Security Advisor to the Prime Minister of India

The Internet will become a crucial weapon in the hands of the ISIS, once it morphs into ISIS 2.0. Already the ISIS has plans to use the ‘deep web’ and the ‘dark net’.

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Jamal Khashoggi

General Manager, Editor in Chief Of AlArab News Channel

We have to go for the root cause of the problem. The root cause of the problem is chaos and anarchy.

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Wang Jisi

President of the Institute of International and Strategic Studies, Peking University, and professor of the School of International Studies, Peking University

Anti-terrorism has assumed a higher place on China’s domestic agenda – it occupies a higher place on the list of priorities.

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Jehangir Khan

Director of the UN Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) and the UN Counter-Terrorism Centre (UNCCT) in the Department of Political Affairs (DPA) in the UN Secretariat

The reason we are concerned about terrorism is that it has a human face. What is that human face? It is the face of the victim.

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Panelists Debate

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Debate

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18:30 – 19:30 | Plenary session 12

Political and Economic Stability in East Asia

Richard Cooper

Professor of International Economics, Harvard University

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Ichiro Fujisaki

Chairman of the Institute of International Relations, Sophia University, Japan, Former Ambassador of Japan to the United States

Japan is seen as one of the countries bringing stability to the region. This is because our relations with countries around us have changed very drastically.

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Jia Qingguo

Professor and Dean of the School of International Studies of Peking University

One of the hotspots is North Korea’s nuclear development. This challenge is approaching a threshold.

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Ju Chul-Ki

President of the Overseas Koreans Foundation, former Senior Secretary for Foreign Affairs and National Security to the President, Korea

There are always sources of instability in East Asia for it to continue to leap forward.

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Debate

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20:00 – 20:30 | Cocktail

20:30 | Official Dinner

Soltan bin Saad Al-Muraikhi

Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Qatar

The State of Qatar has played a key role in mediation to reach peaceful settlements to conflicts in several areas of the world.

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08:45 – 10:00 | Plenary session 13

Main world economic challenges

Panelists Debate

Maurice Obstfeld said that turning back the clock on trade can only deepen and prolong the world economy’s current doldrums, yet we see less and less support for trade agreements in the US, as in Europe.

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Debate

The US cannot be isolated from the global economy, so what alternative could there be?

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10:00 – 11:15 | Plenary session 14

The role of hydrocarbons in the regional geopolitical landscape

Panelists Debate

Hydrocarbons are very important in this region and will remain an important for decades for many reasons.

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11:15 – 11:45 | Coffee break

11:45 – 12:30 | Reports from parallel workshops

Workshop #1 – Report 1

Jean-Claude Trichet

President of Bruegel; Former President of the European Central Bank

The poor level of investment was quoted frequently as one of the reasons why growth was so mediocre; the abnormal level of investment is not preparing the way for growth and labour productivity programmes, because the stock of capital is not what it should be.

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Workshop #2 – Report 2

Marie-Claire Aoun

Director of the Center for Energy at the French Institute for International Relations (Ifri)

While peak oil supply threats were dominating the debates 10 years ago, today we are more talking about the peak oil demand which will probably be the outcome of energy transition policies.

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Workshop #3 – Report 3

In-kook Park

President, Korea Foundation for Advanced Studies (KFAS), former Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations

Chinese economy’s structural transition from export oriented economy to domestic consumption-led economy has already begun to manifest.

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12:30 – 13:00 | Plenary session 15

Education and the role of women

Mona Makram Ebeid

Egyptian Senator and former member of Parliament, Distinguished Lecturer, Political Science Department, American University in Cairo

Two main issues concerning education and the role of women: one of them is flagship educational programs in the Arab world; the second is women as an untapped resource in the fight against terrorism.

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Hamda Hassan Al-Sulaiti

Secretary General, Qatar National Commission for Education, Culture and Science

Qatar has [long] been interested in teaching young girls. This started in 1956, when it embarked on providing education to women.

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Debate

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13:00 – 14:30 | Lunch

14:30 – 15:45 | Plenary session 16

Diversification, Education and Employment in the Middle East

Mohamed Kabbaj

President of Lafarge Morocco, Chancelor of Euro-Mediterranean university of Fès and member of the Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, former Advisor to His Majesty the King Mohammed VI, former Minister of Finance and Foreign Investment, Morocco

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Uri Dadush

Senior Fellow, OCP Policy Center, non-resident scholar, Bruegel

Over the next several years the demographics will be favourable for solving the unemployment problem, not in the sense that it will be good, but that is will not be as bad as it has been in the past.

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Masood Ahmed

Director of the IMF’s Middle East and Central Asia Department

Going forward, GCC governments are not going to have the resources to be able to employ all the nationals in the public sector, so they have to be employed increasingly in the private sector.

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Mona Makram Ebeid

Egyptian Senator and former member of Parliament, Distinguished Lecturer, Political Science Department, American University in Cairo

It is simple: Egypt cannot reach its full potential without women. Great nations draw their strength from all their people. Harnessing that strength means tolerating differences that are peacefully expressed.

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Hassan Al-Derham

President of Qatar University

With the discovery of oil and the exploitation of oil, people took the easy road, and that means the more comfortable road. This involves heavy reliance on government subsidies, government allowances, and government jobs as well.

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Debate

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15:45 – 17:00 | Plenary session 17

Young Leaders Session: Disruption, Populism and the World of Tomorrow

Manuel Muñiz

Director, Program on Transatlantic Relations, Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University

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Li Yi-Fan

CEO, Hesai Photonics Technologies

In this fast-evolving world, we are trying to see things in a different dimension, where you can jump out of this 2D dimension and to look at it in a different angle. And you come to a complete different conclusion and it is always disruptive.

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Lionel Baraban

Co-Founder & CEO, FAMOCO

Populism is basically a lack of trust, and in the real world, like the digital world, you need to bring trust.

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Caroline Goulard

CEO & Co-Founder, Dataveyes

Our ability to implement smart technologies exceeds by far our ability to understand how the algorithms that feed them work.

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Pierre Dubuc

Co-Founder, OpenClassrooms

There needs to be a much stronger link between learning and employment. Today, recent graduates are struggling to find work that matches their skills.

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Essa Al-Mannai

Executive Director at Reach Out To Asia, Qatar Foundation, Qatar

The youth are asking to be not just on the other side of the table as the recipient of the humanitarian work but to have an active, engaged, responsible player within the process itself.

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Debate

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17:00 – 17:30 | Coffee break

17:30– 19:30 | Plenary session 18

Final Debate

Bertrand Collomb

Honorary Chairman, LafargeHolcim

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Hubert Védrine

Former French Minister of Foreign Affairs

Current events challenge not so much the present global order […] but the hopes and illusions of Westerners and of all the globalised elites.

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Renaud Girard

Senior reporter at Le Figaro

Given their education and philosophical background, it is reasonable to think that Western leaders would take only rational, carefully considered decisions. They do not.

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Michel Foucher

Chair of applied Geopolitics at College of World Studies (FMSH-ENS), former Director of the policy planning staff of the French Foreign Ministry

During a period of threats, it is appropriate to strengthen the exercise of basic sovereign functions and let it be known to opinion makers.

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Manuel Hassassian

Ambassador of Palestine to the United Kingdom

Peace, stability and security in the Middle East have been lacking for decades now. The simple answer to this is the lack of a resolution to the Palestinian Israeli conflict.

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Marcelo Sanchez Sorondo

Chancellor, Pontifical Academy of Sciences and Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences

The real solutions lie in making a heartfelt effort to defend human dignity and the liberty not only of every individual, but also of different populations.

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Donald Johnston

Chair of the McCall MacBain Foundation, Geneva, Switzerland, Former Secretary-General of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in Paris

You cannot imagine what a miracle the post war evolution of Europe has been. That is too often forgotten.

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Yim Sung-Joon

Senior Advisor, Lee International IP & Law Group; Former President, Korea Foundation

As election day approached, these media even rated the chance of Clinton winning by over 90%.

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Tadakatsu Sano

Attorney-at-law at Jones Day; Former Director-General of the Trade Policy Bureau and Vice Minister for International Affairs; Chief Executive Assistant to Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama

The real loser seems to me to be the traditional establishment. Trump attacked career politicians, Media, Academia, business people in the finance industry and international institutions.

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François Barrault

Chairman and Founder of FDB Partners SPRL

We have two worlds. There is the 1.0 world which is an extrapolation of the past […] Then there is the 2.0 world, which is the digital world.

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Panelists Debate

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Debate

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19:30 | Envoi

Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the World Policy Conference

Hassan bin Ibrahim Al Mohannadi

Director of Diplomatic Institute, MOFA, Qatar

2015 Conference proceedings

08:30 – 09:45 | Opening session

Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

Our goal is to help to improve governance, in all its aspects, in order to foster the emergence of a world that is more open, more prosperous, more just and respectful of the diversity of States and nations.

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Didier Burkhalter

Federal Councillor, Head of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Switzerland

Globalisation cannot bring about progress if it is perceived as a risk, if it moves too swiftly and if it benefits only the few. Making progress, and not merely moving forward, is the key.

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09:45 – 11:00 | Plenary session 1

Global economic order at the Crossroads

Virginie Robert

Foreign desk editor, Les Echos

We are indeed at a crossroads, and one of the questions is that, in the light of the new dangers facing our world, whether global governance is adequate.

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John Lipsky

Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy Institute at Johns Hopkins University’s Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS); former First Deputy Managing Director, IMF

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, there was a filling-out of the multilateral institutions that formed the basic financial and economic architecture of the post-World War Two era.

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Il Sakong

Chairman of the Institute for Global Economics, former Finance Minister of Korea

The G20 was not meant to be a formal global institution; it was an informal “steering committee”, so to speak, for the world, to exert collective leadership for global economic affairs.

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Motoshige Itoh

Professor, Graduate School of Economics, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo, Advisor to the Prime Minister

The IMF, the World Bank, GATT and the WTO are still very important, but it has to be admitted that the world community has become much more sophisticated now than when it was established.

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Mario Monti

Chairman of the High Level Group on Own Resources, European Commission, former Prime Minister of Italy

I believe Europeans are thought by many to be sinners through an excess of virtue, particularly by the Americans and others.

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Debate

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11:00 – 11:30 | Coffee-break

11:30 – 12:45 | Plenary session 2

The future of central banking

Arthur Rutishauser

Editor-in-Chief, SonntagsZeitung

When I heard the news that we had terrorist attacks in Mali, I wanted to know from someone who has a lot of experience of economies whether he thinks that the terrorist attacks we have seen in Europe will impact the European and global economies.

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Jean-Claude Trichet

Former President, ECB

From the very beginning the Euro, as a currency, was considered with great scepticism, and I was a witness of that in America and Asia before the Euro was created.

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Jacob Frenkel

Chairman of JPMorgan Chase International, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Group of Thirty (G-30), Former Governor of the Bank of Israel

Historically speaking, the creation and management of the Euro is a fantastic development, a huge change, and of course the effort to maintain and strengthen it is in place.

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Marek Belka

President, National Bank of Poland

We should remember that Europe has taken and absorbed, broadly successfully, tens of millions of immigrants, or refugees if you prefer, in the last few decades.

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Jacob Frenkel

Chairman of JPMorgan Chase International, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Group of Thirty (G-30), Former Governor of the Bank of Israel

What is unique about [the G-30] is that it is composed primarily of current and former central bank governors. The reason I mention this is that, after so many years since the beginning of the crisis, it was time to take stock and see what we have learned.

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Jean-Claude Trichet

Former President, ECB

It is not surprising that those who were on the front line were the central bankers, who had to cope with absolutely exceptional circumstances, and very fortunately they were up to their responsibilities […].

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Mugur Isarescu

Governor of the National Bank of Romania, Former Romanian Prime Minister

Since they are elected, politicians enjoy democratic legitimacy. In hard times, but for limited periods, technocrats could step in and I have been in such a situation myself.

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Marek Belka

President, National Bank of Poland

Fortunately, the world is not like theoretical models, and we have a lot of leeway to choose both the level and dynamics of interest rates, to prevent unwanted inflows and outflows of capital […].

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Jean-Claude Trichet

Former President, ECB

We paid a terrible price in the crisis for not respecting the framework. The framework is there and it was reinforced by the crisis, so it has to be respected.

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Jacob Frenkel

Chairman of JPMorgan Chase International, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Group of Thirty (G-30), Former Governor of the Bank of Israel

The European project in its historical dimensions is one of the biggest projects of modern humanity, because it has much wider implications beyond currencies.

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Marek Belka

President, National Bank of Poland

We think that the procrastination is probably more destabilising, even for those countries that are more fragile than we are, than the increase itself.

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Jean-Claude Trichet

Former President, ECB

It is absolutely normal that the central banks are concentrating on their own problems.

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Mugur Isarescu

Governor of the National Bank of Romania, Former Romanian Prime Minister

Regarding capital movement, there is volatility and unpredictability; it is very difficult to predict capital movement.

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Jacob Frenkel

Chairman of JPMorgan Chase International, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Group of Thirty (G-30), Former Governor of the Bank of Israel

As was indicated, Europe is in a different phase of the cycle. The US started its actions early on. Europe started its actions a bit later.

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Debate

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13:00 – 14:30 | Lunch debate

Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

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Khalid Bin Mohammed Al Attiyah

Minister of Foreign Affairs of the State of Qatar

Our region is very important to the world. […] Our stability and prosperity is important to each and every one of you here attending today, and to your countries, for so many reasons.

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Debate

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14:45 – 15:30 | Plenary session 3

Washington’s view of the political and geopolitical implications of November 13th attacks in Paris

Jim Hoagland

Contributing Editor to The Washington Post

There are, of course, echoes of 9-11 in what has happened in Paris. It will change the way France looks at things and acts, just as it changed the ways the US looked at the world and reacted.

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Nelson Cunningham

President, McLarty Associates; former Special Advisor to President Clinton

The horrific events in Paris and what has followed will accelerate the narrowing of the fields of candidates on both the Republican and Democratic sides.

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Debate

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15:30 – 16:30 | Plenary session 4

Trade Agreements from the Viewpoint of Middle Powers

Kemal Dervis

Vice President and Director of Global Economy and Development, Brookings Institution, former Minister of Economic Affairs of Turkey

[We] have to remember that at the end of the day the two arenas of politics and economics are linked, and a well-functioning world economy is another way to create hope, employment and jobs, and also to ease tensions which in the end will help the cause of peace.

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Bark Taeho

Professor at Seoul National University, former Minister for Trade, Republic of Korea

The multi-lateral trading system is really in great trouble and maybe it is now at a kind of critical crossroads. In response to that I think many parts of the world are moving for more bilateral FTAs, so far but very recently many countries are participating in a larger kind of scale that we call mega-regional trade agreements.

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Jonathan T. Fried

Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Canada to the WTO; former Associate Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs and International Trade ; former Senior Foreign Policy Advisor to the Prime Minister, Canada

The challenge of the trading system is to smooth the way in effect from the producer directly to the consumer and all the barriers along the way, not just at the border but throughout the stream of commerce.

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Bark Taeho

Professor at Seoul National University, former Minister for Trade, Republic of Korea

Korea has very many different FTAs including very big FTAs with the United States and the EU, but our consumers are complaining because we are not getting many benefits. The reason is that our distribution sector is not very competitive.

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Jonathan T. Fried

Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Canada to the WTO; former Associate Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs and International Trade ; former Senior Foreign Policy Advisor to the Prime Minister, Canada

In the light of the WTO’s success in dispute settlement and in forcing a code of rules within a limited universe, we tend to put too much weight on the WTO as the solution to everything.

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Debate

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16:30 – 17:30 | Plenary session 5

Do Firms have a Nationality?

Nicolas Barré

Managing Director, Les Echos

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Charles-Édouard Bouée

Chief Executive Officer, Roland Berger Strategy Consultants

When you look at geopolitics, when you look at the economy, you see that, at the end of the day, there is still something behind companies. There is a nationality.

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Nelson Cunningham

President, McLarty Associates; former Special Advisor to President Clinton

Despite companies wanting to be local, it is impossible for them to run away from their national origins and from the flags that they carry.

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Tadakatsu Sano

Attorney-at-law at Jones Day; Former Chief Executive Assistant to Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama

Because of the globalised capital market we do not know who really owns each company. Even though the company name is originally from the United States or France or Germany or somewhere else, you still do not know who owns and controls it.

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Nelson Cunningham

President, McLarty Associates; former Special Advisor to President Clinton

We learned then that the most important thing is actually not to be with an institution that is too big to fail, but rather to be with an institution that has its home in a country that is too big to fail.

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Charles-Édouard Bouée

Chief Executive Officer, Roland Berger Strategy Consultants

I think the link between companies and their mother country’s government is, paradoxically, of growing importance. And it is reciprocal.

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Nelson Cunningham

President, McLarty Associates; former Special Advisor to President Clinton

There is tremendous pride in the US for having had a leading role in the Internet’s development, and the Internet has obviously been a magnet both for investment in the US, and for foreigners coming to the US.

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Tadakatsu Sano

Attorney-at-law at Jones Day; Former Chief Executive Assistant to Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama

I think that China wants to create its own independent regime even in the fields of Internet, ICT and technology. One reason is because they use a completely different language than some others.

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Charles-Édouard Bouée

Chief Executive Officer, Roland Berger Strategy Consultants

I think that any company, any institution has its own peculiarities at the beginning. Like human beings, companies have different styles, created by the founder or the founders.

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Debate

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17:30 – 18:00 | Coffee-break

18:00 – 19:30 | Plenary session 6

The future of the Middle East

Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

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Elisabeth Guigou

President of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the French National Assembly

We have a common enemy, an ideology of death and destruction that clearly has nothing to do with Islam, but takes Islam hostage. We must confront this foe together because, if we do not, I fear it will continue to thrive.

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Youssef Amrani

Royal Cabinet, Morocco

We as Moroccans think that respecting the independence, the unity and the territorial integrity of states is essential. We cannot create more states, because more states means more vacuums, more ISIS, and more movement.

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Mona Makram Ebeid

Egyptian Senator and Member of the Senate Constitutional Committee

What reforms are needed to make Egypt’s security sector effective, accountable and in line with international human rights?

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Vitaly Naumkin

Scientific Director of the Oriental Studies Institute, Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences

We have to understand the future of the Middle East not only through the lens of terrorism and extremism but also through the lens of this crisis and how to solve it.

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Jim Hoagland

Contributing Editor to The Washington Post

Public opinion in the U.S. largely supports the President’s policies in the Middle East. […] But people are war-weary and eager not to get more deeply involved, and the President for his own reasons has augmented that support.

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Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

I would like to ask each of you to answer yes or no to the question whether the Iranian nuclear agreement is good news from the perspective of the reduction of the degree of chaos in the Middle East.

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Bernard Siman

Senior Fellow, Geopolitical Information Service AG

The regional state actors have clearly taken the position of abandoning the globalist agenda and the global game in favour of a classical zero-sum power struggle in their own back yards.

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Debate

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20:30 | Dinner debate

Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

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Patrick Pouyanné

Chief Executive Officer and President of the Executive Committee, Total

I think it would be useful to recall some facts about oil and gas, starting with the geography of oil and gas reserves and production. You’ll understand why oil and gas are intertwined with geopolitics in the countries I am going to mention.

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Debate

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08:00 – 09:30 | Plenary session 7

Security in Asia in a Historical Perspective

Dominique Moïsi

Special Advisor, Ifri

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Kim Hak-Joon

President of the Northeast Asian History Foundation; Chairman of the Asia Journalist Association, Republic of Korea

[…] Northeast Asia. It is the one and only sub-region where the world’s four major powers, that is, the US, Japan, China and Russia, can easily meet and interact and their respective interests compete.

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Mayankote Kelath Narayanan

Former Governor of West Bengal, India

[…] Asia also provides an example that stability is not the natural state as far as the global strategic environment is concerned. Peace, everywhere, tends to be highly elusive.

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Yukio Okamoto

Founder and President of Okamoto Associates, Inc., former Special Advisor to the Prime Minister of Japan

Security and the fate of Asia is an integral part of a world in which Europe is one of the key members.

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Igor Yurgens

Chairman of the Management Board of the Institute of Contemporary Development, professor of the Higher School of Economics, Russia

Russia is still in search for its Asian soul. It found its European soul many centuries ago, but then it felt offended by our European friends, felt betrayed in the sanctions period […] and rushed to Asia.

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Zhang Yunling

Professor of International Economics, Academy Member and Director of International Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Science (CASS)

Regional security should be based on multiple institutions, on consultation, on self-restraint, and on more functional institutional arrangements to make the situation stable.

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Debate

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09:30 – 10:00 | Coffee-break

10:00 – 10:45 | Plenary session 8

Peaceful coexistence of religions?

Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

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Lionel Zinsou

Prime Minister of Benin

Le Bénin est, en Afrique de l’Ouest, un des pays qui voit une coexistence des religions extrêmement féconde et traditionnellement extrêmement apaisée, extrêmement pacifique, ce qui n’était pas une évidence.

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Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

Devant cette asymétrie entre la profondeur historique et le risque d’une destruction […], il n’y a pas de tâche plus importante, qui est de notre responsabilité à tous, que d’empêcher à tout prix pareil désastre.

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10:45 – 12:00 | Plenary session 9

Food and water security

Kemal Dervis

Vice President and Director of Global Economy and Development, Brookings Institution, former Minister of Economic Affairs of Turkey

In terms of moving beyond poverty, without progress in ending hunger and food insecurity, we will never succeed in providing not only economic but social security and stability.

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Mostafa Terrab

Chairman and CEO, OCP Group

We need a global approach on the agricultural front, with a strong focus on Africa. Africa can help feed the world, so to speak.

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Arkebe Oqubay

Minister and Advisor to the Prime Minister of Ethiopia

When food security is linked to the broader human security issues, it is important that we consider whether Africa could be part of the problem or the solution. I am a firm believer that Africa could be part of the solution.

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Kostas Stamoulis

Director, Strategic Programme Leader, Food Security and Nutrition, FAO

Urbanisation will mean that some of the stresses on water resources will come from competition between agricultural water and water for other uses, including municipality water.

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Panelists debate

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Debate

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12:15 – 13:45 | Lunch debate

Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

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Thomas Bagger

Head of Policy Planning, German Federal Foreign Office

What is clear, I think, is that we have a renewed sense of the fragility of the European integration project, that it is not something that inevitably only moves forward in some teleological fashion.

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Peter Hill

Director, Strategy, Foreign and Commonwealth Office

Are we under threat? Well, clearly, we face more threats than we probably have at any time in the history of the European Union, but how you deal with threats is a large part of how real those threats are.

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Justin Vaïsse

Director of the policy planning staff, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs

I think that the reasons to be worried are well founded. If we look back 15 years ago, when we see Europe’s ambitions and Europe’s burst of enthusiasm in the 1990s, we are obviously in a very, very different place.

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Panelists debate

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Debate

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14:00 – 14:45 | Plenary session 10

Israeli-Palestinian dialogue

Jim Hoagland

Contributing Editor to The Washington Post

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Itamar Rabinovich

President of the Israel Institute, Distinguished Global Professor at New York University (NYU) and Distinguished Fellow at the Brookings Institution

It is vital for us to separate from the Palestinians and to have a two state solution. This means a Palestinian state as a nation state of the Palestinian people and Israel as the nation state of the Jewish people, coexisting peacefully with one another.

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Manuel Hassassian

Ambassador from Palestine to the United Kingdom; former representative at the Ministry of Higher Education and at the Association of Arab Universities

Today, the struggle between Palestinians and Israelis is a struggle for existence and it is also the struggle to maintain the national identity, the geography and the demography of the Palestinian people.

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Panelists debate

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Debate

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14:45 – 16:00 | Plenary session 11

The global challenges of the digital technologies

Francois Barrault

Chairman of Idate/DigiWorld Institute; former CEO of BT Global Services and a BT Group PLC board member

Not only has this digital transformation changed the way we live, but it has changed many aspects, like knowledge. For many years, knowledge has been an asset that people kept for themselves. Now, knowledge is something that people share […].

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Patrick Nicolet

Member of the Group Management Board, Capgemini

Big Data is primarily what is generated by connected devices. Another term used in our industry is the Internet of Things. Just to give you two numbers, in 2010, there were 12.5 billion connected devices.

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Fyodor Lukyanov

Editor in Chief, Russia in Global Affairs

If we look at […] the approach to this dilemma between freedom and security, what is more connected to the spread of the digital world and the Internet? This dilemma is absolutely the same in Russia as it is anywhere else and we see that trends are more or less similar to trends that we can see in the Western world.

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Mari Kiviniemi

Deputy Secretary-General, OECD, former Prime Minister of Finland

In order to be able to use the potential of digital technolgoies in the 21st century, keeping the Internet open and accessible is absolutely key.

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Susan Liautaud

Vice Chairman of the London School of Economics and Political Science Council and Court of governors, Visiting Scholar at the Stanford Center of Philanthropy and Civil Society

Digitalisation […] has infiltrated all of the other global risks that come out in our discussions in this conference […]. When we are dealing with the ethics of digitalisation, by definition, we are also dealing with the ethics of all of these other risks.

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Debate

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16:15 – 19:15 | Parallel workshops

Workshop #1 – Energy

Bertrand Badré

Managing Director and Group Chief Financial Officer, World Bank

Energy is fundamental to economic growth and sustainable development. […] Energy underpins progress in all areas of development. When countries lack reliable, sustainable sources of energy, people and economies suffer.

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Olivier Appert

President, Conseil Français de l’Energie; former President, IFP Energies Nouvelles

The recent decline in the oil prices has been dramatic, by 50% in just a few months, and the question is, is it temporary or structural?

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Masood Ahmed

Director of the IMF’s Middle East and Central Asia Department

I will not talk about the impact on the oil importing countries, because it is small and predictable. They all benefit a little bit from lower oil prices, but it does not change their outlook dramatically. However, for the oil exporting countries, it does have a dramatic impact.

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Tatsuo Masuda

Visiting professor at the NUCB Graduate School

Every time oil prices dropped in the past, they naturally rebounded. I would like to be able to say that history may repeat itself, but my evaluation is not this time. This is because of the energy transition taking place due to risks to the climate.

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Antoine Rostand

Senior Advisor, Schlumberger

The US are now producing enough gas to supply their own market, at a very competitive price. Gas is replacing coal, which is leading to a significant reduction in US carbon emissions. The US are now in a position where they can cover the global LNG market for anything between 20 and 50 years.

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Debate 1

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Pierre Sigonney

Chief Economist, Corporate Strategy Department, Total

There was already a crisis 7 years ago, with a strong drop in 2008, but it was very short, and it was due to the fall in demand. Today, it is quite different. It is much more a supply-crisis, because there has been in recent years a strong increase in light tight oil supply in the US.

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Nobuo Tanaka

Former Executive Director of the International Energy Agency; President, The Sasakawa Peace Foundation

There is something interesting about the newest world energy outlook, which was revealed recently, about two weeks ago. The growth happens in Asia, in developing economies, and India, not China, will bring the largest increases up to 2040.

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Lee Hye-Min

G20 Sherpa, Ambassador for International Economic Affairs, Republic of Korea

Energy is fundamental to economic development. That is the reason why it is important for G20 countries to talk about energy issues in order to help address the energy challenges of today and the future.

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Debate 2

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Conclusion

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Workshop #2 – Economy and Finance

Jean-Claude Trichet

Former President, ECB

The external observers and investors were keen to mention that, despite the slowdown of the emerging economies […], it does not prevent them from remaining the major source of global growth in the years to come, and projections for 2020 are still flattering.

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First part

Global economy and various visions of it

Globally, the most likely outcome is for continued moderate growth, but it is worth noting that if the IMF’s base case forecast is correct, global growth will remain slightly below its medium- and long-term average. In this case, the outlook isn’t terrible, but it certainly is not great.

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Second part

Monetary policy

Was the unconventional monetary policy effective overall? Asking the economists in main central banks, they would say it was, and they would point to the lowering of interest rates throughout the whole interest rate curve; there is no doubt about it.

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Third part

G20 Financial Stability Board, financial supervision, rules, regulations, standards and codes

The global imbalances have still been considerably reduced, but you will tell me that they have been reduced under pressure of the crisis, not that it was a deliberate ex ante action. However, I would not say that this process has been useless.

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Conclusion, Jean-Claude Trichet

Former President, ECB

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Workshop #3 – China

Park In-Kook

President of the Korea Foundation for Advanced Studies; Co-chairman of the Beijing/Shanghai Forum

The rise of China is no longer news at all. […] But the rise of China’s economy also raises the question of whether the world is headed towards harmony and co-prosperity – or doomed to fall in the Thucydides Trap.

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Jia Qingguo

Dean of the School of International Studies of Peking University

When people talk about China US relations, many argue that the relationship is heading for conflicts and confrontation and you can find a lot of conflicts to illustrate that point. […] However, that is just part of the story.

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Zhang Yunling

Professor of International Economics, Academy Member and Director of International Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Science (CASS)

One [priority] is to deepen domestic reform, moving from building a market towards the market deciding. That is a fundamental change and it means that you need to change the role of the Government and the risk structure that is SOEs and many assets of the deepening of reform. This is a very hard work for China.

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Richard Cooper

Professor of International Economics at Harvard University

I think that the potential for cooperation is very strong and it is a question of skillful management in both Beijing and Washington to realise that potential. It is happening now in a number of areas and there are many possibilities going forward.

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Qiao Yide

Vice President & Secretary General, Shanghai Development Research Foundation

I will not address the Chinese issue today but rather will give an alternative perspective to address some reasons for the cognition gap between Chinese decision makers and international economists and investors on specific issues […].

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Bark Taeho

Professor at Seoul National University, former Minister for Trade, Republic of Korea

There are many reasons why we are not able to produce the outcome here and one is that the big trading nations, such as the United States and China, cannot find any common ground to conclude the negotiations.

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Michel Foucher

Chair of applied Geopolitics at College of World Studies; Former French Ambassador to Latvia; Former Director of the policy planning staff of the French Foreign Ministry

As regards the European perspective, it seems to me important to understand the Chinese view before coming to any conclusion.

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Debate

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19:30 – 20:00 | Cocktail

20:00 | Gala dinner

08:00 – 08:45 | Reports from parallel workshops

Marie-Claire Aoun

Director of the Center for Energy, Ifri

The workshop revealed […] the different perceptions we all have from the effects of this oil prices decline. One American participant told us that we should cheer up. […] Oil prices decline does not seem however to be a good news for international oil companies who are struggling to adapt their costs to these new conditions.

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Daniel Daianu

Member of the Board of the Central Bank of Romania; former Finance Minister of Romania

One has to accept the reality that the forecasts, which have been invalidated for years by dynamics, show that there will be lower economic growth rates in the immediate period to come. What does this indicate? There is still much that gives us food for thought, and one has to link it with what some people have called secular stagnation and the lack of investment.

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Park In-Kook

President of the Korea Foundation for Advanced Studies; Co-chairman of the Beijing/Shanghai Forum

The issue on China is too diversified and with too much magnifications. [Our] four items were: […] characteristic features of Sino-American relationship, […] the New Silk Road Initiative or One-Belt-One-Road, […] the Chinese stock market crash this summer and its impact [and] the internationalization of the Renminbi […].

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08:45 – 09:45 | Plenary session 12

Health and global governance

Christian Bréchot

President of the Institut Pasteur

We are living in the context of a new era of technology. Technology is transforming biomedical science, and we know this. It has a major impact for surveillance, for monitoring.

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Bertrand Badré

Managing Director and Group Chief Financial Officer, World Bank

It is not surprising that [the] decline in poverty goes hand in hand with accelerated improvement in health.

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Louise Fresco

President of Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands

Health is linked to the way we function as a planet. Pathogens have always been there […]. Therefore, I will argue that unless we link pathogens, or health more generally, to the ecosystem, we will not really get a grip on these issues.

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Debate

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09:45 – 11:30 | Plenary session 13

Climate and Environment

Introduction, Richard Cooper

Professor of International Economics at Harvard University

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Laurent Fabius

French Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development

As you know, our main goal is to reach an agreement between governments, all governments, that will limit global warming from greenhouse gas emissions to two degrees or, if possible, 1.5 degree, by 2100.

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Yukari Niwa Yamashita

Board Member, Director, The Institute of Energy Economics, Japan (IEEJ)

450ppm scenario is an ideal target which we may ultimately need to aim at but for more practical point of view, it may be more pragmatic to consider various scenarios and options other than only the 450ppm scenario. Just like our diet target, we need to be more realistic.

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Bruno Lafont

Co-Chairman of the Board of Directors, Lafarge Holcim Group

Most European companies, or the bulk of European industry, is in favour of a global agreement as soon as possible and is probably also in favour of an agreement which goes beyond what COP 21 will do.

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Jean-David Levitte

Distinguished fellow, Brookings Institution and member of the International Advisory Board of the Atlantic Council of the United States; Former Senior Diplomatic Adviser and sherpa of President Nicolas Sarkozy

We are the first generation aware of the fact that global warming poses an existential threat to our planet’s future. We are also the last generation that can come up with a decisive solution to that existential threat.

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Marcelo Sanchez Sorondo

Chancellor, Pontifical Academy of Sciences and Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences

We do have a special responsibility towards the Earth, for it is a gift that God created for humankind; we must therefore preserve and protect it as our own home because this is where we live.

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Debate

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11:30 – 12:15 | Plenary session 14

Iran and Middle East

Hossein Amirabdollahian

Deputy Foreign Minister for Arab and African Countries, Iran

The current transitional period of Middle-East requires new security order and the secret of new security order of Middle-East are efficient inbreeding policies, collective role-playing of governments and considering legitimate demand of people.

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Q & A

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12:15 – 13:45 | Plenary session 15

Europe’s refugee crisis

Karl Kaiser

Director emeritus of the German Council on Foreign Relations, Harvard University

Very often, one says of the present exodus that it is the biggest since the great flow of refugees immediately after World War Two. That comparison is only partially correct […]. The new flow is very different.

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Haïm Korsia

Chief Rabbi of France

The refugee issue is essential. It is even vital, insofar as there are two levels, in my opinion. The first is a political level, and others on this panel will be able to talk about that much better than I can. But there is also an individual level.

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Kemal Dervis

Vice President and Director of Global Economy and Development, Brookings Institution, former Minister of Economic Affairs of Turkey

Claiming that there is a solution to what is happening, to the drama we are experiencing today, is unfortunately impossible. We must talk about how we have reached this point and what the underlying causes are.

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Vuk Jeremic

President of the Center for International Relations and Sustainable Development (CIRSD), former President of the UN General Assembly, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Serbia

The refugee crisis is perhaps the most serious crisis that Europe has come to face since the end of the Second World War. The very foundations—of values, institutions, and tenets—of the European construct are in danger as a result of this.

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Sergei Karaganov

Honorary Chairman of the Presidium of the non-governmental Council on Foreign and Defense Policy, Russia

We have to understand the magnitude of the problem. It is not just Syria, but Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq and other countries down the list, and then there is Africa. We have a problem of several million people and maybe even more than several ready to come.

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Hubert Védrine

Former French Foreign Minister

Migratory flows will continue growing worldwide. It is absolutely necessary for the departure countries, the transit countries and the arrival countries to move towards co-management.

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Debate

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14:00 – 15:00 | Lunch

15:00 – 16:45 |  Plenary session 16

Final debate

Dominique Moïsi

Special Advisor, Ifri

Ce qui m’a frappé dans cette huitième édition de la World Policy Conference, c’est un certain nombre de moments […] où nous avons parlé d’identité et où je me suis rendu compte que le grand péché du monde occidental n’était pas nécessairement l’arrogance, mais tout simplement le manque de curiosité.

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Ribal Al-Assad

Founder and Director of the Organisation for Democracy and Freedom in Syria and Chairman of the Iman Foundation

We should not be focusing on the brand name. ISIS is only a brand. We should go after the underlying, poisonous ideology and all groups who share it.

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Meir Sheetrit

Member of the Israeli Knesset

I have come to the conclusion that the best way to achieve peace is through the Arab initiative, or what is called the Saudi Initiative. […] The Saudis came out with an initiative which in my opinion is very courageous and also very wise.

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Miguel Angel Moratinos

Former Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain

I think Europe has something to say in the global governance that is taking shape. We have got a responsibility, and the best way to make our voices heard in this new world is by listening, identifying problems and addressing all the complexity you have mentioned several times in various talks.

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Bilahari Kausikan

Ambassador-at-Large and Policy Advisor in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Singapore

I heard Asia described as being divided into two blocks. One is the China led Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) block and the other is the US led Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) block. This is at best a caricature and in fact, it is profoundly misleading.

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Narendra Taneja

Chairman, Energy Security Group of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI)

In my opinion, this will be Africa’s century, and countries like India, China, Japan, South Korea and Indonesia will play a big role in helping that happen.

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Renaud Girard

Journalist at Le Figaro, Editor at Questions Internationales

War has changed since the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, when the signatories sincerely, but vainly, hoped to ban war as the continuation of politics by other means once and for all. Now it has many faces, all of them, of course, bearing the scars of history.

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Dominique Moïsi

Special Advisor, Ifri

Let us not get trapped by our own emotion. Let us distinguish between the reality and the way we want it to be. In a way, it is a summary of everything we said during this eighth edition of the WPC.

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16:45 | Envoi

2014 Conference proceedings

09:15 – 10:00 | Opening session

Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

We aim to contribute to improving all aspects of local and regional governance, with a view to promoting a world that is more open, more prosperous, fairer and more respectful of the diversity of states and nations.

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Park Geun-Hye

President of the Republic of Korea

I believe that building a framework of trust and cooperation on the Korean Peninsula and in East Asia will be crucial for a more peaceful and secure future for our world.

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10:00 – 11:30 | Plenary session 1

“Security governance in East Asia and in Europe”

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

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Jean-David Levitte

Distinguished Fellow, Brookings Institution

In my view, the US, both in Europe and Asia, has to play the role of balancing power, like the UK did in the 19th century in Europe.

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Richard Haass

President of the Council on Foreign Relations

Asia is a much more complex geography than Europe with much less institutionalism and it is much more about territorial and other kinds of disputes.

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Han Sung-Joo

Former Republic of Korea’s Minister of Foreign Affairs

With its rebalancing policy, the US appeared to be placing more weight on its Asia policy and presence, but it now finds itself with problems elsewhere around the globe from which it cannot easily pivot away.

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Igor V. Morgulov

Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation

In the time of a fundamental transformation of the system of international relations, the world faces growing number of conflicts and challenges.

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Shotaro Oshima

Chairman, Institute for international Economic Studies (IIES) and Visiting Professor, Graduate School of Public Policy, University of Tokyo

One of the most important elements in East Asia is obviously the rise of China, and it is creating certain instabilities in the region.

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Debate

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11:30 – 13:00 | Plenary session 2

“Prospects for the Korean Peninsula and Northeast Asia”

Introduction by Choi Young-Jin

Professor at Yonsei University Graduate School of International Studies; former Ambassador to the US; former Head of the UN Mission in Côte d’Ivoire.

The rise of East Asia will be recorded in history as the most significant phenomenon of the second half of the 20th century, along with the Cold War.

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Thomas Bagger

Head of Policy Planning, German Federal Foreign Office

I think the German/Korean relationship is far broader than the rather superficial similarity of having a history of division, but it is quite interesting that we come back to this issue of division and unification on the Korean Peninsula.

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Ju Chul-Ki

Senior Secretary for Foreign Affairs and National Security, Office of the President of the Republic of Korea

Unification can be the silver bullet to resolving many of the key challenges that plague the Korean Peninsula such as the nuclear issue, human rights abuses, and North Korea’s social economic challenges.

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Thierry Mariani

French Member of Parliament for French Citizens Abroad (Asia, Russia, and Oceania)

The economic dynamism of Northeast Asia except, of course, North Korea, has enabled them to carry weight on the international stage. South Korea is an example.

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Marcus Noland

Executive Vice President and Director of Studies, Peterson Institute for International Economics

The first scenario is one side conquers the other one militarily. The second one is that the peninsula experiences a peaceful, gradual consensual unification that is measured in decades […] The third possibility is […] an abrupt German-style collapse of the North and its absorption by the South.

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Anatoly Torkunov

Rector of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations

The Korean Peninsula remains the hub of bilateral, regional and global problems.

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Debate

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13:15 – 14:45 | Lunch debate

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

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Lee Hong-Koo

Former Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea

The most crucial requirement is to bring the major powers together to guarantee the peaceful coexistence of two Korea working together towards an eventual unification.

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Conclusion by Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

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15:00 – 16:30 | Plenary session 3

“Inequalities and globalization”

Introduction by Susan Liautaud

Visiting Scholar at the Stanford Center on Philanthropy and Civil Society; Founder of Susan Liautaud & Associates Limited (SLA)

Our topic for this 90‑minute session is vast and it is inequality and globalisation. It is indeed a topic that Christine Lagarde and others have called one of the most important stories of our time.

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Mari Kiviniemi

Deputy Secretary General of OECD; former Prime Minister of Finland

Inequality is not only bad socially, ethically and on a human level, it is also bad economically.

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Rhee Changyong

Director, Asia and Pacific Department, IMF

We have to be very careful when we talk about inequalities. It is not about inequality in general; it is more about inequality in opportunities, and excessive inequality is quite detrimental to growth.

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Richard Cooper

Professor of International Economics at Harvard University

The Gini coefficient is a very clever coefficient, but it is a single number, and inequality is typically much more complicated than can be captured in a single number.

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Il Sakong

Chairman of the Institute for Global Economics; former Finance Minister of Korea

Income and wealth inequality have been rising throughout the world during the last three decades or so, particularly in the advanced economies.

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Jean Pisani-Ferry

General Commissioner for Strategy, Office of the Prime Minister, France

The WTO and the IMF are increasingly concerned about inequality. Paradoxically, the EU, which is a political institution with a mandate in the treaties of improving the whole of society, has proved relatively indifferent to these issues of inequality.

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Debate

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16:30 – 17:15 | Plenary session 4

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

H.R.H. Prince Turki Al Faisal

Chairman of the King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies (KFCRIS)

Governance in Libya, Yemen, Tunisia, Egypt and Syria is in such a tenuous condition, and the perfect conditions for terrorist cells to take root […]. This is something that will continue to happen as long as we do not treat the illnesses and continue to treat the symptom. The main disease in that area is the failing states.

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Debate

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17:15 – 17:45 | Coffee-break

17:45 – 19:15 | Plenary session 5

“Africa in a global context”

Introduction by Marie-Roger Biloa

CEO, Africa International Media Group

Nowadays, conversations about Africa no longer tend simply to vilify it as hopeless, but instead highly praise its economic progress and golden business opportunities.

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Wu Jianmin

Executive Vice Chairman of China Institute for Innovation and Development Strategy

Asian countries have been very active in Africa’s rise, and in the 21st century, Afro-Asian solidarity will play a very important role.

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Lynda Chalker

Founder and Chairman of Africa Matters Ltd; former UK Minister for Overseas Development and Africa

We are beginning to see a real combination of experience being shared from Asia into Africa, and with third countries too.

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Nathalie Delapalme

Executive Director, Research and Policy, Mo Ibrahim Foundation

There is no doubt about the narrative of the African rising, but I still think that the economy is not the only measurement; we should be careful not to be overly optimistic, but should take into account the early warning signs of insecurity, domestic unrest, inequality and jobless growth.

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Youssef Amrani

Chargé de mission, Royal Cabinet, Morocco

Africa must take its future in its own hands, overcome the barriers to its socio-economic development and create jobs for its youth, who are the continent’s real driving force.

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Elisabeth Guigou

President of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the French National Assembly

Europe must become more aware that its security depends on what happens in the Sahel.

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Debate

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20:00 | Dinner debate

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

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Yun Byung-Se

Republic of Korea’s Minister of Foreign Affairs

A reunified Korea will be nuclear weapons-free; a beacon for human rights and democracy; at peace with neighbors; an engine of global economic growth; and a promoter of regional and global peace and prosperity.

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Conclusion by Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

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08:30 – 11:30 | Parallel workshops

Workshop #1 – The state of the world economy and finance

Introduction by Jean-Claude Trichet

Former President of the ECB

We’re still living in the shadow of the deepest economic crisis since the Second World War. It might have been even worse had central banks and governments not taken extraordinarily bold, swift steps.

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Jeffry Frieden

Professor of government at Harvard University

There are major political and economic blocks to a resolution of the crisis in Europe, which causes concern both in Europe and around the world.

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Yutaka Aso

President, Aso Group

The strong intention of Governor Kuroda of the Bank of Japan is working. He says the bank will do whatever it can to overcome the deflation that has long undermined Japanese economy.

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Daniel Daianu

Member of the Romanian Academy; former Minister of Finance of Romania

Extreme events keep us under constant pressure. All this is very bad because there are economic, institutional, social, and political entailed costs; these costs show up in individual mindsets and in the collective psyche of people.

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Debate 1

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Jun Gwang-Woo

Former Chairman of Korean Financial Services Commission (FSC)

In general, older people tend to have a low risk tolerance and not aggressively engage in venture type investment. So, the result is: saving more, spend less and prefer safer assets.

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Bozidar Djelic

Partner, Lazard; former Deputy Prime Minister of Serbia

There is no commonly agreed model, where all the banks would in the same way use the same model.

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Marek Belka

President of the National Bank of Poland

I do not think that we have really experienced a full-blown currency war which some of the colleagues, say, from Brazil, were quite concerned about.

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Debate 2

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Workshop #2 – Energy, climate change and environment

Richard Cooper

Professor of International Economics at Harvard University

I will give my own pessimistic view about the COP process we are involved in. I do not see how 193 countries with a huge diversity of interests can reach a meaningful agreement – the word ‘meaningful’ is important – by a process of consensus.

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Laurent Fabius

Action is possible. Greenhouse gas emissions must be cut; that’s where energy comes in. We must reduce our reliance on fossil fuels, save more energy and use more renewable sources.

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Vuk Jeremic

Former President of the UN General Assembly; former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Serbia

Global problems require global awareness for global solutions […] It is an illusion to believe that negotiations on post-2015 agenda and climate change can take place in isolation from general international trends.

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William Ramsay

Senior Advisor of the Center for Energy, Ifri; former Deputy Executive Director, International Energy Agency (IEA)

We cannot emit any additional CO2 from 2040 if we want to achieve the two-degree target, which is not particularily realistic.

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Debate 1

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Bertrand de la Noue

General Representative of Total in China

Energy companies have for a long time been quite mute on the climate debate. […] Total has been over the past years at the forefront of a profound change in industry response.

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Tatsuo Masuda

Professor at Nagoya University of Commerce and Business Graduate School, Japan

Energy and environmental challenge is symbolically seen in Asia, where some 60% of the global increment of energy demand growth up to 2040 will take place.

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Luigi Colantuoni

Group Representative of Total in Japan and South Korea

Climate change and energy transition are considered major issues for the world economy and for the sustainable future of humankind.

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Debate 2

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Christian Bréchot

President of the Institut Pasteur

Eco-epidemiological impacts are extremely important. There will be increasing health risks from natural disasters and increasing health challenges linked with human displacement.

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Sverre Vedal

Professor, University of Washington (UW) School of Public Health; Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRAES)

While most air pollutants are climate warming, some important ones are climate cooling, and that complicates mitigation strategies.

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Debate 3

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Lee Seung-Hoon

Professor emeritus of the Seoul University; former Co-Chairman of Green Growth Committee of the Korean government

With tools energised by fire, greedy mankind has built up astounding prosperity on the one hand, and degraded the environment to the level of destruction on the other.

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Anil Razdan

Former Power Secretary of India

The OECD said in 2010 that seven out of ten world cities most exposed to climate change are in developing Asia.

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Debate 4

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Workshop #3 – Agroindustry in Africa and Asia

Introduction by Jean Yves Carfantan

Senior Consultant, AgroBrasConsult

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Suresh Kumar

Chief Editor of Africaindia.org; former Head and Director of the Department of African Studies, University of Delhi

Agriculture extension is an important component of agriculture universities throughout the world, which will help Africa Agriculture Education System to strengthen in rural areas.

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Khalid Meksem

President of the University Mohammed VI

The pre-colonial part of agriculture in Africa was sustainable, local and harmonious. […] people who are interested in sustainability today will fly to remote locations in Africa and learn from the locals.

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Debate 1

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Krishan Jindal

CEO, NABARD Consultancy Services Pvt. Ltd.

NABARD has been able to facilitate credit flow to agriculture and also helped in adoption of technology by small farmers to operate in a profitable and sustainable way.

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Debate 2

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Rod A. Wing

Professor, University of Arizona

The greatest challenges that we face in plant breeding is to be able to link genome sequences to functional traits that could be used to create superior and sustainable varieties.

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Philippe Chalmin

Professor, Paris-Dauphine University

Debate 3

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11:30 – 11.45 | Coffee-break

11:45 – 13:15 | Plenary session 6

“The geopolitics and geo-economics of Eurasia”

Introduction by Fen Osler Hampson

Director of CIGI’s Global Security & Politics program; Co-director of the Global Commission on Internet Governance; Chancellor’s professor at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada

I think that it is important to note that the Eurasian region has witnessed a number of cooperative governance initiatives in both the economic and security spheres.

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Michel Foucher

Chair of applied Geopolitics at College of World Studies; former French Ambassador to Latvia; former Director of the policy planning staff of the French Foreign Ministry

The reference for the Eurasian economic union is the European Union. It’s cut-and-paste in formal and institutional terms.

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Dong Manyuan

Vice President, China Institute of International Studies (CIIS)

President Xi Jinping proposed a cooperation initiative through the Silk Road economic belt cooperation initiative. It brings about new opportunities for economic cooperation on the Eurasian continent and has been welcomed by the majority of countries that lie alongside the continent.

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Alexander Panov

Member of the Advisory Board of the Security Council of the Russian Federation

There are a number of projects in which Moscow, Seoul and Pyongyang are already involved in, particularly those in the transport and energy sectors.

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Justin Vaïsse

Director of the policy planning staff, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs

If the European Union and the Eurasian Union discussed common economic projects and trade, we’d see that as something very positive, because it would add to South Korea or China’s efforts to develop the region.

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Yu Myung-Hwan

Chairman of Sejong University; former Republic of Korea’s Minister of Foreign Affairs

South Korea’s Eurasia Initiative is still at a very nascent stage […] and is trying to implement the Eurasia Initiative with forward-looking and creative thoughts.

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Debate

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13:30 – 15:30 | Lunch debate

“What about American leadership?”

Part 1

Americans never had full hegemony. There is a bit of a myth about the past, that there was a period when the Americans could do anything and now we can do nothing, and the truth is somewhere in between.

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Part 2

Giving more resources to Ukraine is a good idea in principle, but the problem is that in practise, there is zero evidence that more resources will be used well.

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Part 3

I do not think we are on the verge of a great détente with Iran, because there are too many interests where there is divergence.

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Part 4

China quite simply does not use the influence it has to rein in either North Korea’s nuclear programme, or more broadly, North Korean behaviour. There is a sense that China could and should do more, not to control North Korea, but to influence it.

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15:30 – 17:00 | Plenary session 7

“Trade and politics”

Introduction by Patrick Messerlin

Professor of Economics and Director of the Groupe d’économie mondiale (GEM) at Sciences Po Paris

Many people tend to believe, and yesterday we had this impression, that trade and politics are a source of increasing conflicts and interactions.

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John Manley

President and CEO, Canadian Council of Chief Executives

The world is increasingly complex, and our political economies are all engaged in dealing with a myriad of very deep and difficult issues.

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Alejandro Jara

Senior Counsel, King & Spalding; former Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Chile, WTO

The trade agenda is increasingly intrusive and touches upon very sensitive domestic political issues in many countries.

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Bark Taeho

Professor at Seoul National University; former Minister for Trade, Korea

The current consensus-based decision making mechanism of the WTO faces serious limitations. We have to discuss honestly how to save the Doha Round with all options open.

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Pascal Lamy

Honorary President of Notre Europe; former Director-General of the WTO

The relationship between trade and politics, whether domestic or international, is fundamentally changing as we are transitioning from an old world of trade into a new one, and we are somewhere in between these two worlds.

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Debate

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17:00 – 18:30 | Plenary session 8

“Middle East in a global context”

Introduction by Dominique Moïsi

Special Advisor at Ifri

I would say there are three words that characterise the ‘new’ new Middle East: fragmentation, […] radicalisation, […] and expansion.

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Hubert Védrine

Former French Minister of Foreign Affairs

Turmoil and problems have been rocking the Middle East for 50, 70, even over 100 years!

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Ribal Al-Assad

Chairman of the Iman Foundation

We saw the rise of the Islamic State as ISIS in 2006, but it came to Syria because there was a certain atmosphere that allowed it to prosper, that allowed it to grow.

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Meir Sheetrit

Member of the Knesset; former Minister of Internal Affairs of Israel

Many countries at last understood that Israel was standing alone in fighting terror, and now we are fighting together against radical Islam.

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Sergei Karaganov

Honorary Chairman of the Presidium of the non-governmental Council on Foreign and Defense Policy of Russia

Stop exporting democracy or socialism or whatever, and, by the way, stop ostracising Israel. It is the only beacon of stability there, and we see more and more ostracising of Israel.

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Miguel Angel Moratinos

Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Spain

I think the Middle East deserves all this time, because it is the quintessence of the new challenging world, where all traditional security concerns, traditional military intervention, energy and trade converge in the new challenges of today’s world, which are global terrorism, food security, water scarcity, and culture division.

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Debate

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19:15 | Cocktail

20:00 | Gala dinner

Report

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09:00 – 10:00 | Reports from parallel workshops

Jeffry Frieden

Professor of government at Harvard University

There have been some notable steps forward in cooperative measures among the major financial and economic centres, especially with respect to the harmonisation of financial regulation. At the same time, the global macroeconomic situation remains quite troubled and quite troubling, with Europe being the most worrisome cause for concern.

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Marie-Claire Aoun

Director of the Energy Centre at Ifri

To be successful, the fight towards climate change should reflect local, regional and global alliances, including private sector, and civil society and should be driven by a strong and sustainable political will.

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Jean-Yves Carfantan

Senior Consultant, AgroBrasConsult

In the small group that was present at the workshop, we did believe that increasing production in the farm sector in Africa is one of the main challenges the world is faced with in the coming years.

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Debate

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10:00 – 11:30 | Plenary session 9

“The economic and political consequences of the revolution of Big Data”

Nicolas Barré

Managing Director, Les Echos

In 2000, that is less than 15 years ago, only a quarter of the existing data in the world was digital and today it is almost 100%.

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Chang Dae-Whan

Chairman of Maekyung Media Group, Republic of Korea

Now that we are entering the world of IoT, Internet of Things, our everyday lives will change. The Internet of Things is a new, emerging power.

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Luc-François Salvador

Executive Chairman for Asia-Pacific, Capgemini Group

We should see the impact of the big data revolution from different aspects and in different areas, touching all domains of our private, professional lives as well as citizens.

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Ben Scott

Senior Advisor, Open Technology Institute at the New America Foundation; Program Director, European Digital Agenda, Stiftung Neue Verantwortung

We have to convince people that the Internet offers more benefits than risks. Not just today, but tomorrow and in 15 years and, to do that, we need to establish legitimacy at least for democratic governments and their conduct online.

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Joseph Nye

University Distinguished Service Professor, Center for Public Leadership, Harvard Kennedy School

When you have the capacity of computing power doubling every 18 months, the ability to analyse data has outgrown our social mores and norms and laws, which set limits on this in the past.

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Debate

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11:30 – 12:00 | Coffee-break

12:00 – 13:00 | Plenary session 10

“The US and Asia in the 21st century”

Robert M. Gates

Former Secretary of Defense of the United States

People talk a lot about the emergence of China, when I think it is more accurate and provides greater historical context to talk about the re-emergence of China.

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13:15 – 14:45 | Lunch debate

Conclusion by Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

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Mehmet Ceylan

Deputy Minister of Development of Turkey

The rise of Turkey’s economy is much admired because of the fact that it goes hand in hand with democratic and modern values.

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Debate

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15:00 – 17:00 | Plenary session 11

« General debate »

Introduction by Dominique Moïsi

Special Advisor at Ifri

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Mohamed Laichoubi

Former Minister of Labor and Social protection of Algeria

The reorganisation of the world and the emergence of new players have made it clear that new instruments are necessary. Defining a new multilateralism has become an absolute necessity.

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Jeffry Frieden

Professor of government at Harvard University

Global governance is only really justified if there are global public goods that cannot be supplied by national governments.

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Liu Chen

Professor, China’s Foreign Studies University in Beijing

Thanks to the overall positive economic and political effects of the Reform and Opening up, the smoke has cleared in the state-market battle in China and there is an increased tendency toward connecting China with World.

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Kunihiko Miyake

Research Director, The Canon Institute for Global Studies, Japan

The most important element is the rise of nationalism on the planet. Nationalism is back and I think that we should focus on how to control it.

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Tobby Simon

Founder and Chairman, Synergia Foundation, India

Global warming and rising waters, caused by climate change is a major threat. Another consequence of global warming is the spread of diseases and emergence of multi-resistant strains.

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Carlos Pérez-Verdia

Head of the Private Office of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Mexico

In Latin America we have no significant religious, ethnical or cultural rivalries and no significant border disputes. We are therefore more or less absent from the debate on spheres of influence.

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Michael Yeoh

Founder and CEO of Asian Strategy & Leadership Institute of Malaysia

Southeast Asia will continue to play a key role in the regional architecture of Asia and the hope is that we will become a middle power in the years to come.

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Conclusion by Dominique Moïsi

Special Advisor at Ifri

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Debate

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17:00 | Closing

Envoi

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2010 Conference proceedings

20:30 | Dinner-debate

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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Christophe de Margerie’s speech

CEO and Member of the Executive Committee, Total

“This crisis […] will force statesmen over the world whatever their colour to be responsible and to act in sustainable manner, to make promises that they can keep.”

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Conclusion by Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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8:30 – 10:00 | Opening session

Royal Message

His Majesty King Mohammed VI

“This crucial project should be perceived as the result of an essential cultural and political process, backed by genuine political will, that can contribute to lasting peace, the right to fair trade and respect for diversity when it comes to matters relating to culture and faith.”

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Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

“The goal of this conference is to constructively participate in reshaping the global governance system, with the aim of strengthening the security of the entire world in the years and decades to come – because the governance issue is fundamentally a security issue.”

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Ban Ki-Moon

Secretary-General of the United Nations

“Global governance is too important to be left to just one organization or group. But it is at the United Nations – with its universality, experience and operational presence in nearly every country – where global governance can best come together.”

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Debates

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10:00 – 11:30 | Plenary session 1

“Population, Climate, Health: What Global Governance?”

Introduction from Narendra Taneja & Jean-Pierre Elkkabach

Energy CEO and Convener, World Oil & Gas Assembly (WOGA) / President, Lagardère News

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Fernando Alvarez Del Rio

Head of the Economic Analysis Unit, Secretariat of Health, Mexico

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William Reilly

Chairman of the Climate Works foundation

“The one basis for optimism on this subject in America right now is that there is a growing consensus that we cannot even govern ourselves and therefore, maybe international governance would be friendlier and more welcome than it might have been.”

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Chris Viehbacher

Chairman and CEO, Sanofi-Aventis

“All of these factors are interdependent. The more urbanisation there is, the more environmental problems there are. As urbanisation and access to health care increases, the more likely we are to discover what causes diseases.”

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Jean de Kervasdoue

CNAM Professor

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Chris Viehbacher

Chairman and CEO, Sanofi-Aventis

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Fernando Alvarez Del Rio

Head of the Economic Analysis Unit, Secretariat of Health, Mexico

“The issue is that many of these actions go beyond the health sector. There are many aspects that are intersecting; there are many aspects that relate to agreements with industry. That is where global governance also comes into play. You have to have a perspective that is going to be global, but that is going to end up in specific solutions at the conflict base.”

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William Reilly

Chairman of the Climate Works foundation

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Fernando Alvarez Del Rio & Jean de Kervasdoue

Head of the Economic Analysis Unit, Secretariat of Health, Mexico / CNAM Professor

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William Reilly

Chairman of the Climate Works foundation

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Debates

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11:30 – 12:00 |  Coffee break

12:00 – 13:30 | Plenary session 2

“Global Monetary and Financial Governance”

Introduction from Jacques Mistral & Xavier Vidal-Folch

Head of Economic Studies, Ifri/Deputy Director, El País, President of the World Editors Forum

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Kemal Dervis

Vice President, Global Economy and Development, Brookings Institution

“Why governance? Because there is interdependency. This interdependency is growing mainly through trade. Trade creates an obvious interdependency at the level of fiscal and budgetary policies.”

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Haruhiko Kuroda

President, Asian Development Bank

“The use of a single national currency, the US dollar, as an international reserve currency heightened the tension between national and global monetary policy making. It also continued to be a source of instability, by allowing lower financing costs for the countries with the reserve currency.”

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Jean-Claude Trichet

President of the European Central Bank

“it is necessary to make our public opinions sufficiently aware of the externalities of national decisions, and consequently on the necessity to internalize complex concepts like global economic prosperity and global financial stability.”

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Panelists’ comments

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Debates

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13:30 – 15:30 |  Lunch-debate

Introduction from Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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Speech from Jean-Claude Trichet

President of the European Central Bank

“all the advanced and emerging countries are learning from the crisis, which is a sort of life-sized stress test on the new world which has been created. .”

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Exchange between Thierry de Montbrial and Jean-Claude Trichet

President and Founder of the WPC / President of the European Central Bank

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Debates

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Conclusion from Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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15:30 – 17:30 | Parallel workshops

Workshop #1 – Energy and Environment

Introduction from Anil Razdan

Former Power Secretary, Government of India

“There is also an inseparable link between energy use and deployment and levels of income and development. Therefore, energy is virtually a sine qua non of any poverty alleviation programme.”

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Bruno Lafont

Chairman and CEO, Lafarge

“Lafarge is present in 80 different countries, of which 60 are developing countries. The first point about governance is that companies should be involved in the process of finding solutions.”

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Qu Xing

President, China Institute of International Studies

“Under the precondition of common but differentiated responsibilities, the key for effectively fighting climate change is to realize the cooperation between developed and developing countries.”

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William Ramsay

Director of Energy Programme, Ifri

“The last really bad crisis we had was in 1975, and it was another of these commodity ramps; we went through commodity ramps in 2006, 2007 and 2008, and here we are again with the impacts of these runaway commodity prices. ”

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Mohammed Tawfik Mouline

Director General of the Royal Institute of Strategic Studies, Kingdom of Morocco

“The Mediterranean typifies the main energy and environmental issues of the world, and therefore offers a regional analytical framework that overlaps at national and world levels. This framework is relevant for the analysis of interdependencies and interrelationships between national policies and their coherence with the world effort.”

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Debates

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Workshop #2 – Food Security

Introduction from Philippe Chalmin

Professor, Paris Dauphine University; Founder, Cercle Cyclope

“who would have believed, when people at the start of the 21st century have mastered practically everything in terms of technology and controlling space and time that we would still find ourselves facing food problems, just as our ancestors did during the great famines of previous centuries?”

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Yashwant Thorat

Executive Director, Reserve Bank of India and Former Chairman, NABARD

“India is now revisiting the Green Revolution all over again in the context of the Millennium Development Goals, as well as the need for a second round of resurgence in agriculture.”

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Kairat Umarov

Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Kazakhstan

“40 countries around the world are experiencing food shortages; more than a billion people are experiencing water shortages, and this figure will triple by 2025. World energy prices are growing rampantly, pushing up the prices of all kinds of goods, including food.”

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Remark • Jean de Kervasdoue

Professor, CNAM

“soya from the United States is now 90% GM. The figures are between 80 and 90% for almost all major crops in North America. Soon they will hit 100%.”

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Remark • Amit Roy

President and CEO of IFDC

“There has been a lot of talk recently in terms of running out of phosphate. We will reach peak phosphate in 30 years and run out of it in 130 years”

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Debates

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Workshop #3 – Global Monetary and Financial Governance

Introduction from Jacques Mistral

Director of Economic Studies, Ifri

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Lionel Zinsou

Chairman and CEO, PAI Partners

“there’s the rest of the world, where the levers are going up and where we have to manage the opposite situation, damping down a sector that is overheating. Dealing with both forms of governance is no easy task. It was these two forms of governance that I wanted to draw your attention to.”

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Pier Carlo Padoan

Deputy Secretary-General and Chief Economist of the OECD

“Global current account imbalances underlying savings and investment imbalances should not be totally eliminated; they are good in some cases. There are some good imbalances…”

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Gordon Smith

Distinguished Fellow, Centre for International Governance Innovation, Canada

“we have to do what we all have probably been trained not to do, and get into this very sensitive area of the future of sovereignty. That really is what we are talking about if we are to manage in an effective way the kind of interdependent world in which we now live.”

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Debates

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17:30 – 18:00 | Coffee break

18:00 – 19:30 | Plenary session 3

“Discussion Panel on Current Events”

Introduction from Dominique Moïsi

Special Adviser to Ifri

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Joaquin Almunia

Vice President and the Commissioner for Competition

“Europe has taken very important, very courageous and very worthwhile initiatives, not only to solve its internal problems but also problems beyond its borders, global problems. But Europe has a position that others find unreasonable. It is over-represented in multilateral institutions.”

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Miguel Angel Moratinos

Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain

“But other players who also have power don’t have responsibilities. Yet they still participate in decision-making. When a speculator decides to buy Spanish bonds at a certain price, isn’t he making economic and financial policy?.”

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Konstantin Kosachev

Chairman, Duma Foreign Affairs Committee, Russia

“we are making progress on discussions as to whether European or global security will focus just on military aspects, which is more or less the case now, or will include other things like economic security, humanitarian issues and other important things.”

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Nambaryn Enkhbayar

Former President of Mongolia

Good governance is about engaging others, not excluding; about regulating and coordinating, not dictating; about giving everyone a chance, even North Korea, Mongolia, Afghanistan and Kyrgyzstan.”

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Hubert Védrine

Former French Foreign Minister

“The aim is that within three, four or five years, a young man in Gaza, in despair because his cousins or his friends have been killed by the Israeli army, ends up thinking that it makes more sense to open up a pizzeria… At that point we will see a new Middle East, which will bring Jordan and other countries in its wake.”

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Amir Peretz

Member of Parliament, State of Israel

“For the majority of Israelis the question of the settlements is less important than the important goal of peace, which will change our reality for generations to come. I believe that if we put into motion this real will and real opportunity to reach the agreement with the power from the international community – led by president Obama, we might see this dream comes true”

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Manuel Hassassian

Ambassador from Palestine to London

“Israel should recognise a simple fact, that it cannot continue its occupation while seeking peace, and cannot disregard the Arab Peace Initiative, the only safety valve for its existence and acceptance in the Middle East region. We the Palestinians are the only guarantors for a legitimate existence of the State of Israel. ”

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Conclusion from Dominique Moïsi

Special Adviser to Ifri

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20:30 | Gala Dinner

Amina Benkhadra

Minister of Energy, Mining, Water and the Environment

“Sustainable development is not limited to rational resource management and environmental preservation, which are certainly essential pillars. It is, instead, a comprehensive and integrated concept (…) that views the individual as the actor and purpose for all development.”

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Fu Ying

Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs, People’s Republic of China

“In a developing country like China, nothing is more important and more relevant than to improve the living and working conditions of its 1.3 billion people. We are still lagging behind the people’s needs. To understand China, one should not lose sight of such reality.”

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9:15 – 9:30 | Introduction of the day

Message

Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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Message from Henry Kissinger

Secretary of State in the administrations of President Richard Nixon and President Gerald Ford, Nobel Peace Prize 1973

“Right now, the world is dominated by at least two overwhelming realities. The first is that the international system of the 19th and 20th centuries has disintegrated. The system based entirely on the sovereignty of states is no longer enough to meet the needs of humanity and of the world as it is…”

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9:30 – 10:00 |  Reports from parallel workshops

Workshop 1 • Bruno Lafont

Chairman and CEO, Lafarge

“In energy, governance is clearly the quest for clean energy. Then again, in terms of the challenges, the link between energy and global warming is a global subject. So also is the link between energy and growth…”

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Workshop 2 • Philippe Chalmin

Professor, Paris-Dauphine University, founder of the Cercle Cyclope

“Apart from the controversies about the part which may have been played by speculation or other forces, these price surges must be seen as a warning message from the markets, a warning message on what we have considered as the major challenge of the 21st century, namely the food challenge. ”

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Workshop 3 • Lionel Zinsou

Chairman and CEO, PAI Partners

“We agreed that the world had basically succeeded in getting the financial system working again. (…) We understood that, as far as the regulation of banks and insurance companies was concerned, much work had been done, but there were still the non-banking institutions…”

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10:00 -11:15 | Plenary session 4

“Governance of the Cyberspace”

Introduction from Ulysee Gosset

Journalist, France Télévisions

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Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet

Minister of State for Forward Planning and Development of the Digital Economy

“The Internet is something very scaleable that no one designed. In fact, it operates through addition, and through addition by capillarity. It also operates in a very decentralised manner, which accounts for some of the Internet’s resilience. If it’s a space, then it’s a space that is constantly in motion.”

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Craig Mundie

Chief Research and Strategy Officer of Microsoft Corp.

“The technology does not start at a border or end at a border. Many of the issues associated with how it is going to evolve are going to be very difficult to manage. Another thing that is very different about the cyber environment, even as it extends, are physical world experiences, is that the rate at which things are happening is different. “

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François Barrault

Chairman and founder of FDB Partner SPRL

“When you look at how the Internet has developed since its beginnings, it was viral and a little chaotic…Internet technology has become an integral part of everyday life. In my opinion, the problem of governance means organising this chaos.”

Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet

Minister of State for Forward Planning and Development of the Digital Economy

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Craig Mundie

Chief Research and Strategy Officer of Microsoft Corp.

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François Barrault

Chairman and founder of FDB Partner SPRL

Michel Chertoff

Former Secretary for Homelands Security, United States of America

“We are facing a circumstance in which the Internet allows people to potentially have a catastrophic, destructive effect. This is not only on the Internet itself, but on the real world systems that depend on the Internet. Here is the challenge. “

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Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet

Minister of State for Forward Planning and Development of the Digital Economy

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Craig Mundie

Chief Research and Strategy Officer of Microsoft Corp.

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Debate

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Conclusion from Steven Erlanger

Chef du Bureau de Paris, New York Times

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11:15 – 12:45 | Plenary session 5

“French and Korean Views on the G20”

Introduction from Jim Hoagland & Samir Aita

Associate Editor and Chief Foreign Correspondent, Washington Post / Editor-in-chief of Le Monde diplomatique éditions arabes, and Président of the Cercle des économistes arabes

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Ahn Ho-Young

Ambassador-at-large for the G20, Korea

“We have to fill the gap between those 172 countries who wish to sit at the G20 table and the G20 countries, who think 20 countries are already too many. We thought that maybe we should appoint an Outreach Ambassador and make him travel to all those non G20 member countries.”

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Jean-David Levitte

Diplomatic Advisor and Sherpa to President Nicolas Sarkozy

“Another idea important to President Sarkozy is continuing to work year long. A summit lasts 24 to 36 hours. Considering the subjects on the agenda, we think it is very important for the heads of State and government, as well as the ministers, to feel fully involved.”

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Debates

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12:45 – 15:30 | Lunch-debate

“Global Governance and Business”

Introduction from Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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Speech from Mo Ibrahim

Founder and Chair, The Mo Ibrahim Foundation

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Debates

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15:30 – 18:00 | Free afternoon

18:00 – 19:30 |  Plenary session 6

“Emerging Powers and Global Governance”

Introduction from Mehmet Ali Birand

Journalist and writer, CNN Türk

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Fu Ying

Chinese Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs

“For the developed countries, there is concern that the newly emerging countries may not observe the original rules or may not be ready to accept existing structures. At the same time, the emerging countries are concerned that those developed countries may not accept them, or may impose on them.”

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Kemal Dervis

Vice President, Global Economy and Development, Brookings Institution

“the future of Turkey depends on its ability to thrive with this diversity. It must not try to merge it or overcome it, but to actually make a strength of it. If you believe that globalisation is going to continue and that global economic and cultural forces are going to be very strong worldwide, taking advantage of these different dimensions is going to be a very good thing.”

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Kanwal Sibal

Former Foreign Secretary of India

“La phase unipolaire est terminée, et en ce qui concerne la multipolarité, il existe une dichotomie dans l’attitude de certains pays s’opposant à la domination des Etats-Unis. Ils souhaitent une multipolarité à l’échelle mondiale, mais souhaiteraient l’unipolarité dans leurs propres régions.”

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Stuart Eizenstat

Partner, Covington & Burling LLP

“We are really at a historic watershed. The question is; will the greater influence that developing countries rightly demand, come along with the capacity to create consensus between developed and developing countries.”

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Panelists’ Comments

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Conclusion from Fyodor Lukyanov

Editor-in-chief, Russia in Global Affairs

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Debates

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19:30 – 19:45 | Envoi

Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

“I have to tell you that it is my profound conviction that, in a century, in other words at the beginning of the 22nd century, either the whole world will be a vast European Union in terms of organisation, or there will have been tragedies, conflicts and world wars.”

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2011 Conference proceedings

15:00 – 16:00 | Opening session

Thierry de Montribal

President and Founder of the WPC

“[…] governance is essential. Without governance, our highly interdependent system is likely to explode.”

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Heinz Fischer

President of the Republic of Austria

“Reinstating the primacy of politics is one of the major challenges – we cannot afford to waste this opportunity.”

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Abdullah Gül

President of the Republic of Turkey, Guest of honor of the 4th edition of the WPC

” […] no single power can cope with these challenges alone. There is a need for truly effective multilateralism with the participation of the emerging powers.”

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Debate

16:15 – 17:00 |  Plenary session 1

“The ECB and the sustainability of the Euro”

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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Peter Praet

Member of the ECB’s Executive Board

“The ECB will continue to remain an anchor of confidence and stability in a global economy characterized by marked uncertainties.”

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Debates

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17:00 – 19:00 |  Plenary session 2

“Arab spring and global governance”

Introduction by Volker Perthes

Chairman and Director of Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (SWP)

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Amr Moussa

Former Secretary General of the League of Arab States, candidate to the Egyptian presidential elections

“We want to move together and have interaction where our world lives in a better way and with more connections.”

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Hrh Prince Turki Al-Faisal

Chairman of King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies

“Reform is no longer a choice for us. It is an imperative. For us to be able to meet these challenges of providing justice, livelihood and equal opportunity for all is an opportunity as well as a challenge.”

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Edward Djerejian

Founding Director of James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, former US Ambassador to Syria

“In the long arch of history the United States identifies with the Arab Awakening’s quest for individual freedom, equality of opportunity and broader political participation.”

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Christophe de Margerie

Chairman & CEO of Total

“We may be mistaken, but as stakeholder in all these countries we are entitled to have our say.”

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Amr Moussa

Former Secretary General of the League of Arab States, candidate to the Egyptian presidential elections

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Hrh Prince Turki Al-Faisal

Chairman of King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies

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Debates

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19:00 – 20:15 | Plenary session 3

“Major catastrophes and global governance”

Introduction by Jim Hoagland

Associate Editor, Chief Foreign Correspondent of the Washington Post

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Yukiya Amano

Director General of the IAEA

“Showing the highest level of nuclear safety is a responsibility for each country. The role of the IAEA is to help them. Every country is varied and an international response is needed.”

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Scott Charney

Corporate Vice President, Trustworthy Computing of Microsoft

“I think the biggest thing that people need to start to appreciate in more detail is that the internet is now connecting everyone’s life.”

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Yukiya Amano

Director General of the IAEA

Scott Charney

Corporate Vice President, Trustworthy Computing of Microsoft

Yukiya Amano

Director General of the IAEA

Scott Charney

Corporate Vice President, Trustworthy Computing of Microsoft

Yukiya Amano

Corporate Vice President, Trustworthy Computing of Microsoft

Debates

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20:15 – 21:15 |  Welcome cocktail

21:15 – 23:00 |  Dinner at the Hofburg Palace (Conference Center)

“Dinner”

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

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Herbert Stepic

CEO of Raiffeisen Bank International

“[…] besides the very necessary consolidation process we need to focus on strategic growth programs. This will only be possible through solidarity.”

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Conclusion by Thierry de Montbrial

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9:00 – 10:15 | Plenary session 4

“Corporate social responsibility and global governance”

Introduction by Bruno Lafont

Chairman and CEO of Lafarge Group

“The novelty of the phenomenon of CSR is that it is […] increasingly seen not only as a condition of survival for the firm today, the licence to operate, but as a powerful lever to render sustainable value creation in the long run.”

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Mary Robinson

Former President of Ireland, President of Mary Robinson Foundation

“I believe the central challenge ahead is to turn the progress of the past decade into new actions that will move governments and markets sufficiently to make respect for human rights part of mainstream business practice around the world.”

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Narayana Murthy

President and founder of Infosys Technologies Limited

“As long as corporations seek respect from every stakeholder, I believe they will automatically use the power of corporate social responsibility to add value to society.”

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Debates

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10:45 – 12:15 | Plenary session 5

“The future of the G8 and G20: challenges and prospects for the economic and financial systems”

Introduction by Kemal Dervis

Vice-President for Global Economy at the Brookings Institution and Senior Advisor at the Sabanci University; former Minister of Economic Affairs of Turkey

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Jacob A. Frenkel

Chairman of JPMorgan Chase International, former Governor of the Bank of Israel

“Asia, led by the economies of China and India, will continue to grow at very rapid rates and latin America, which in the past was the source of economic turmoil, is now becoming a source of stability and growth.”

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Il Sakong

Presidential Envoy of the Republic of Korea

“The appropriate governance system is particularly crucial at the global community level in this age of non-polar or G-Zeeo world. The world at the time of the Seoul G20 Summit faced a heightened risk of global currency war.”

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Lourdes Aranda

Sherpa of Mexico to the G20, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of Mexico

The priorities for Mexico will be: economic stability, international trade, financial regulation, food security, and green growth.”

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Panelists’ Remarks

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Debates

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12:30 – 14:30 |  Lunch debate

Introduction by Thierry De Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

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Kishore Mahbubani

Dean and Professor in the Practice of Public Policy of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore

“I feel optimistic because i would say that the world has now reached agreement on three new global consensuses.[…]That is why I say that the next 20 years will be the best 20 years the world has ever seen.”

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Debates

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14:45 – 15:30 |  Plenary session 6

“Debriefing of the European Council”

Jean-David Levitte

Diplomatic Advisor and Sherpa of President Nicolas Sarkozy

“We are not only determined to save the euro, but also determined to become one of the world’s most competitive area in the 21st century.”

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Debates

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15:30 – 17:00 | Plenary session 7

“Europe as a laboratory for global governance”

Introduction by Charles Kupchan

Professor in international relations at the Georgetown University

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Toomas Hendrik Ilves

President of the Republic of Estonia

“My question is how long can we sustain or expect the Parliament to sustain its pro-European solidarity in a democratic country when it is going against the wishes of the electorate?”

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Bartholomew 1st

Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople

“The European Union, and Europe more generally, is beyond all doubt a laboratory for global governance. However, as history shows, it is not the only one.”

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Fu Ying

Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China

“There are many discussions about if China is to “rescue” Europe and how. […]What Europe needs is not a savior but a cooperation partner.”

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Kemal Dervis

Vice-President for Global Economy at the Brookings Institution and Senior Advisor at the Sabanci University; former Minister of Economic Affairs of Turkey

“I do not believe that there can be a successful end of the story without the surplus countries – the north, particular Germany but not only Germany – accepting that they also have to make an effort so that their surpluses do not continue at very high levels.”

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Panelists’ Remarks

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Debates

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17:30 – 19:30 | Parallel workshops

Workshop #1 – Energy and environment

Introduction by William Ramsay

Senior Advisor of the Center for Energy at Ifri

“Energy policy makers are fully aware of what the policy options are and what the programmes could be. […] The economy around the world is too parlous and it is not a time when politicians make difficult decisions. “

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Manoëlle Lepoutre

Executive Vice President, Sustainable Development and Environment of Total

“Our first priority is to manage the risk associated with our operations, to avoid any major accidents and that is really a constant progress.”

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Paal Frisvold

Chairman of the Board of Bellona Europa asbl

“The fact is that we need to reduce emissions, we know that, but we also know that 80% of the world’s energy is based on fossil fuels and that the global energy demand is increasing rapidly and vastly […]”

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Kristina Rüter

Research Director of OEKOM research AG

“Key challenges in the Oil & Gas industry include climate protection and gradual shift to low-carbon/non-fossil energy sources, minimisation of environmental risks […]”

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Debates

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Workshop #2 – Food security

Introduction by Mostafa Terrab

Chairman and CEO of OCP Group

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Louise Fresco

Professor at the University of Amsterdam

“We have done a great deal with the so-called Green Revolution, but we have also seen the effects levelling off, and we need to find new ways to produce foods sustainably […]”

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Yashwant Thorat

CEO of the Rajiv Gandhi Trust

“High prices worsen food security in the short term but in the long run, they lead to investments being made in agriculture and to better food security, because countries feel they have to invest and increase productivity.”

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Jean-Yves Carfantan

“Food security claims to keep in mind two main points, first that most of the soil reservoir for feeding the population is located in wet tropical lands, especially in Africa, and these soils do not have the same behaviour as soil in Europe […]”

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Qu Xing

President of China Institute of International Studies (CIIS)

“I summarise the measures taken by Chinese governments in this regard into 11 fields: first, intensifying supervision on the quality and safety of agricultural products, second, establishing and strictly implementing market access systems for food quality and safety […]”

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Debates

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Workshop #3 – Health

Introduction by Jérôme Contamine

Executive Vice-President, Chief Financial Officer, and Member of the Executive Committee of Sanofi-Aventis

“It is clear that there is still a huge gap between what could be a reasonable and acceptable level of health for the worldwide population and where we are today.”

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Petra Laux

Head of Global Public Affairs at Novartis

“A global health citizenship index for all players to sign up to could be a good way of moving forward in health issues.”

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Steve Howard

Founding Secretary General of The Global Foundation

“If we put health too much into its own box, it might turn off all those who are not actually in the health sector.”

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Debates

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Workshop #4 – Global Governance and its current state

Introduction by Stewart Patrick

Senior fellow and director of the program on international institutions and global governance at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)

“Governance at the global level is obviously more complex in a system of sovereign states lacking overarching political authority.”

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Sean Cleary

Chairman of Strategic Concepts (Pty) Ltd

“The other possibility is that we develop a greater sense of humility, stop imagining that we know all the answers and we can go back to business as usual […]”

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Bruno Lafont

Chairman and CEO of Lafarge Group

“[…] we operate in a lot of different countries, and we see that there are limits to the approach of how we should approach global governance with different cultures.”

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Debates

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20:30 | Gala dinner at the Rathaus

Gala dinner

9:00 – 10:00 | Reports from parallel workshops

William Ramsay

Energy And Environment

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Louise Fresco

Food Security

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Jérôme Contamine

Health

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Stewart Patrick

Global Governance and its current state

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Remarks of Panelists

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Conclusion by Thierry de Montbrial

10:00 – 11:15 |  Plenary session 8

“Development and security”

Introduction by Jim Hoagland

Associate Editor, Chief Foreign Correspondent of the Washington Post

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M.K. Narayanan

Former National Security Advisor of the Prime Minister; Governor of West Bengal of India

“Emerging threats and challenges in the 21st century are likely to test the flexibility, ingenuity and ability of governments worldwide.”

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Yury Fedotov

Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

“In addition, while drugs and crime, often appear to be local in nature, our solutions must be global.”

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Debates

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11:30 – 12:30 | Plenary session 9

“Africa”

Jean-Michel Severino

Chairman of Investisseur et Partenaire, member of the French Academy of Technology

“2011 is the first year where the GDP of non-OECD countries will be higher than the GDP of OECD countries. It also leads us to try to see whether we can find ways out of the major economic crisis that the OECD world faces by introducing new partners into the game.”

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Lionel Zinsou

Chairman of PAI Partners

“[…] the perception of Africa by China is totally different. It is not neo-colonialism. It is just a country looking at a continent with a sort of pragmatic view and nothing like a colonial heritage.”

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Jean-Michel Severino

Chairman of Investisseur et Partenaire, member of the French Academy of Technology

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Lionel Zinsou

Chairman of PAI Partners

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Jean-Michel Severino

Chairman of Investisseur et Partenaire, member of the French Academy of Technology

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12:30 – 14:30 | Lunch debate

“Lesson learned: an experience of the Polish-Russian rapprochement”

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

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Anatoly Torkunov

Rector of the Moscow State Institute of International relations, Co-Chairman of the Polish-Russian Group on Difficult Matters

“Russia and Poland are countries with overlapping history and historic mythology about each other. […] Our countries always stress the morality of their foreign policy.”

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Adam Daniel Rotfeld

Former Foreign Minister of Poland, Co-Chairman of the Polish-Russian Group on Difficult Matters

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Debates

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14:45 – 15:45 | Plenary session 10

“Middle East”

Introduction by Steven Erlanger

Paris Bureau Chief of the New York Times

Ehud Barak

Former Prime Minister; Minister of Defense and Deputy Prime Minister of Israel

“I believe that those leaders in the Arab world who opened their societies more for many voices and for women’s advancement ended up more stable when they faced this Arab Spring.”

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Debates

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16:00 – 18:00 | Plenary session 11

“General debate”

Introduction by Dominique Moïsi

Special Advisor at Ifri

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Hubert Védrine

Former French Minister of Foreign Affairs

“The next developments in the great matter of governance will depend on whether or not alliances will be formed. If so, will they divide the world into hostile systems or will they make it possible to go beyond such hostility?”

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Joschka Fischer

Former German Minister of Foreign Affairs

“In the 21st century the defining force will be the rise of the new powers or, even more, the desire of the people to get out of poverty and achieve the same living standard that we have been used to in the West.”

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Igor Ivanov

Former Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs

“In our country, people want evolution, not revolution. We have had revolutions and suffered from them. We want evolution and our country to be a modern country with strong democratic institutions.”

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Robert Badinter

Former French Minister of Justice, former President of the Constitutional Council

“In order to establish its credibility, the international criminal justice system has to be universal. […]There are still too many states that benefit from absolute immunity thanks to the Security Council.”

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Debates

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18:00 – 18:15 | Conclusions

20:30 | Closing dinner

2012 Conference proceedings

19:30 | Welcome Cocktail

20:00 | Dinner debate

“Establishing and operating a business in a conflict zone”

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

Christophe de Margerie

Chairman and CEO of Total

“It’s an important subject: how do you manage a company like Total, an industrial business, which has high stakes in terms of investments and big problems with acceptability, when it has to supply energy to as many people as possible?”

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Debate

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09:00 – 10:15 | Opening

Message from François Hollande

President of the French Republic

“The second subject you are discussing is the future of the eurozone. There has been considerable progress in terms of cohesion and trust in recent months.”

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Thierry de Montbrial

Founder and chairman of the WPC

“First point – the nature of interdependence has changed as a result of globalisation. It has become non-linear, as can be seen from the examples of the financial and economic crisis since 2007-2008, and the Arab Spring.”

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Alassane Ouattara

President of the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire

“The world today is facing turbulence. Forecasts recently published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development expect “a hesitant and uneven recovery”, with growth rates cut to 1.4% in 2013 instead of 2.2% as was initially forecast.”

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H.A.H Bartholomew 1st

Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch

“In this context, old alliances which seemed so solid just a few years ago are beginning to weaken.”

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H.S.H. Prince Albert II

Sovereign Prince of Monaco

“All this means that we have to come up with new lifestyles, aimed at respecting carefully thought-out conservation.”

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Herman Van Rompuy

President of the European Council

“Without going into details, let me just stress one point, and you may think that is all very well, I am sure they can come up with technical solutions, but in the end will European citizens follow, a key question indeed, and I am obviously aware of some of the doubts, but I am confident about the public support for our Union in the end.”

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Najib Mikati

Prime Minister of Lebanon

“But, rather than changes, it would be more appropriate to speak of upheavals, since the very foundations of the systems which organise our societies are being re-evaluated.”

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10:15 – 10:30 | Coffee break

10:30 – 12:00 | Plenary session 1

“Global economic governance”

Introduction by Jim Hoagland

Contributing Editor to The Washington Post

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Angel Gurría

Secretary-General of the OECD

“What is clear is that the crisis is not over yet. The outlook has even deteriorated in the last few months. “

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Il Sakong

Chairman of the Institute for Global Economics, Former Finance Minister of Korea

“The G20 also deserves due credit for successfully initiating, but not yet completing, the difficult task of reforming the institutions that are at the centre of the formal global economic governance system.”

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Kemal Dervis

Vice President, Brookings Institution and Member of the Executive Committee, Istanbul Policy Center, Sabanci University

“We have to remember that from 1820 to 1950, if you take the whole emerging and developing world and the rich countries, there was divergence. The rich countries were getting richer, and the poor countries were not catching up and diverging more and more.”

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Benoît Cœuré

Member of the ECB’s Executive Board

“In my view, the rise of emerging market economies has made international cooperation both more desirable and also more difficult, and this is the challenge that we face now.”

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John Lipsky

Distinguished Visiting Scholar, International Economics Program, The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Former First Deputy Managing Director, IMF

“Notably, both household and corporate sectors in most developed economies at present are in financial surplus.”

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12:00 – 12:45 | Plenary session 2

“G2 ?”

Introduction by Han Sung-Joo

Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Korea

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Robert Blackwill

Henry A. Kissinger senior fellow for U.S. foreign policy, Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)

“Those are all very general shared objectives of Washington and Beijing and there are currently 60 Governmental dialogues taking place between the two Governments under the umbrella of these shared abstract foreign policy goals. Does that mean that there will be an evolving and strengthening G2? “

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Wang Jisi

Dean of the School of International Studies, Peking University, and director of the Center for International and Strategic Studies, Peking University

The G2 as an idea is controversial in China. The Chinese leadership’s attitude is one of denial and resistance, for three major reasons.”

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Debate

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12:45–14:00 | Lunch debate

“Democracy in Europe”

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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Sylvie Goulard

Member of the European Parliament for the West of France

“If we look at the situation objectively – without being deliberately provocative, just objective – and consider how well States and the international organisations in which States work together have performed, the result is not impressive.”

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Debate

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14:15 – 15:00 | Plenary session 3

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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Mario Monti

President and Founder of the WPC

“When I was put into power – if you want to call it that – 13 months ago, Europe, the United States and the world were concerned about the state of Italy’s affairs because we were the possible spark that could cause the euro zone to permanently explode.”

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Debate

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15:00 – 16:30 | Plenary session 4

“The future of the EU”

Introduction by António Vitorino

President of Notre Europe – Institut Jacques Delors, Former Defense Minister of Portugal and Former European Commissioner

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Joaquín Almunia

Vice-President of the European Commission

“Are we emerging from the crisis? Clearly it’s a pertinent question, but the answer depends on who you ask.”

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Karl Kaiser

Harvard University; Former Director of the German Council on Foreign Relations

“For five years, the imminent collapse of the euro has been predicted and here we are five years later and the euro is still there.”

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Radosław Sikorski

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Poland

“However, I think that it is useful in a discussion to be frank and I will tell you that we are – how shall I put this diplomatically? – angry that the euro zone has been mismanaged so badly over the last few years.”

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Hubert Védrine

Former French Minister of Foreign Affairs

“Generally, when someone says “Europe”, I’m not too sure what it means. In geopolitical, strategic terms, it’s more of a statistical aggregate.”

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Pierre Vimont

Executive Secretary General, European External Action Service (EEAS)

“If you admit what I just said about these two observations, one can then ask the question: but why is it then that we still have this feeling when we talk about the European foreign policy, why can we have this feeling that something is still missing there, and not yet totally complete?”

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16:30 – 18:00 | Plenary session 5

“Good governance and economic success”

Introduction by Susan Liautaud

Visiting Scholar at the Stanford Centeron Philanthropy and Civil Society, Founder of Susan Liautaud & Associates Limited (SLA) and Imaginer Consulting Limited

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Bruno Lafont

CEO of Lafarge group

“Men can move, but not companies, and certainly not equipment.”

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Mo Ibrahim

Chairman of Mo Ibrahim Foundation

“Now, is this governance or is this theft? That is the issue.”

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Chang Dae-Whan

Chairman of Maekyung Media Group

“In 1974, I spent a semester at the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium, studying the European Common Market, so I picked up the idea that if Europe can unite itself and look for peace and prosperity, why not Asians?”

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Donald J. Johnston

Founding Partner, Heenan Blaikie; Former Secretary-General of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

“For example, as I recall, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development has a principle that says when you are in another country, you will apply the higher of the environmental standards of your country of origin, or the standards of the foreign country where you are operating.”

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Ana Palacio

Member of the Spanish Council of State, Former Senior Vice President of the World Bank, Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Spain

“For many institutions today, such as the Monetary Fund or the World Bank, on a 25-member board, you see at least seven or eight European faces and sometimes one or two African faces, which does not represent the world of today.”

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Debate

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20:00 | Cocktail

20:30 | Gala Dinner

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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Pascal Lamy

Director-General of the WTO

“This is true of leadership: how can a leader be appointed if sovereign nation states enjoy equal rights, which is the Westphalian theory?”

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Conclusion by Thierry de Montbrial

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09:30 – 12:30 | Parallel workshops

Workshop #1 – Finance

Jean-Claude Trichet

Former President of the European Central Bank

“By the way, we avoided a Great Depression, but we had a great recession.”

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Josef Ackermann

Chairman of the Board, Zurich Insurance Group Ltd; Former CEO, Deutsche Bank

“At the time everybody talked about the need for narrow banking. But despite the rhetoric reality is completely different today.”

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Marek Belka

President of the National Bank of Poland

“One of the lessons that we drew from the recent crisis is that even if financial institutions, one by one, look healthy – and they do look healthy in times of prosperity – it does not mean that the whole system is not in danger.”

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Jeffry Frieden

Professor of government at Harvard University

“It was observed that one country’s policy driven capital movements could impose externalities on other countries. For example, we can observe, without imposing or suggesting any moral judgment, that one country’s large scale surplus implies large scale deficits on the part of other countries.”

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Jacques Mistral

Special advisor at Ifri

“What happened in Washington in the same period can reasonably be considered as a dangerous political deadlock by major international investors, at least by those outside London and Wall Street.”

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Riad Toufic Salame

Governor of the Lebanese Central Bank

“You can remember when there was one mistake in one programme in New York; the stock market fell 10%, without any explanation. Later, we knew the cause.”

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Debate

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Workshop #2 – Energy and environment

William Ramsay

Senior Advisor of the Center for Energy, Ifri; former Deputy Executive Director, International Energy Agency (IEA), former US Ambassador in Brazzaville

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Maria Van Der Hoeven

Executive Director of the International Energy Agency (IEA)

“The amount of global natural gas will grow by about 50% up to 2035 and the price relationships between regional gas markets will strengthen as a more integrated global market starts to emerge. “

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Christophe de Margerie

Chairman and CEO of Total

“Regarding renewables, the only thing we can say at this time is that we need them, and for the chairman of an oil and gas company, which we call an energy company, to say this is a proof of our real commitment. “

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Jacques Lesourne

President of the Scientific Committee of the Energy program at Ifri

“It is not very useful to take the OECD countries one by one: for instance the European Union has 27 energy policies and, in addition, a policy at the level of the Union.”

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Anil Razdan

Former Power Secretary of India

“[…] you need energy, you need equity, you need to protect the environment, you need efficiency, and you need enterprise. Unless these five Es are present, we will not be able to tackle the problem. “

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Kevin Sara

Chairman and CEO of Nur Energie

“It depends of course on how you count; some environmentalists will say that, if you count the externalities and the cost of pollution, renewables are already competitive today.”

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Alexander Likhotal

President of Green Cross International

“The Earth Overshoot Day – the day when we have consumed the sustainable portion of resources -was reached this year on 27 September. “

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Richard Cooper

Professor of International Economics at Harvard University

“The problem is who is to pay for restraining emissions, and we all know that almost all governments of the world today are strapped for funds.”

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Jean-David Levitte

Distinguished Fellow, The Brookings Institution; former Diplomatic Advisor and Sherpa of President Nicolas Sarkozy

“You will not believe it, but coal prices are going down because of the revolution, and so Germany, which is closing its nuclear plants, not emitting any CO2, is importing coal from America because it is competitive due to the shale gas revolution.”

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Debate (first part)

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Debate (second part)

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Conclusion by Christophe de Margerie

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Workshop #3 – Major risks

Introduction by Lionel Zinsou

Chairman of PAI Partners

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Godefroy Beauvallet

Head of the AXA Research Fund

“There are three core responsibilities of decision makers: first, they shall make sure, at any point in time, that there exists a central scenario known to civil society and based on the best and latest scientific data available. “

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Qu Xing

President, China Institute for International Studies

“Living a long time is not a risk, instead, it is a progress of mankind, but it will cause problems as the population getting aging. “

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Tadakatsu Sano

Attorney at Law, Jones Day, Tokyo

“You can point out a lot of predicable risks, but the important thing is that we are moving toward the Internet based society, I do not know how to tackle, there is fragmentation and individualization of society.”

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Igor Yurgens

Chairman of the Management Board of the Institute of Contemporary Development, Moscow

“Current events, from the recent global financial crisis to the environmental risks, already depicted, of transgression of planetary boundaries make it clear that we cannot continue on our present path.”

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Luc-François Salvador

CEO of Sogeti

“About 50 billion devices will be connected to the Internet in 2020, most of them barely protected, which implies as much potential doors for hackers to intrude in our machineries, our companies, our home and personal lives.”

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Philippe Chalmin

Professor of Economic History and Director of the Master of International Affairs at Paris-Dauphine University

“Our choice today is, what am I going to choose for lunch or dinner, but the choices of about one billion people around the world are different. “

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Raphael Wittenberg

Senior Research Fellow at the Personal Social Services Research Unit (PSSRU) at the London School of Economics and Political Science

“To give an idea of the finances involved, the European Union countries spend roughly 1.8% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on long-term care services, and that is only the formal services.”

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Dominique Moïsi

Special Advisor at Ifri

“[…] there is a major gap between the evolution of science and technology, which both make us dream, and also have nightmares, and the stability of human leaders, the stability of human nature.”

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Debate

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12:30 – 14:30 | Lunch debate

“Trust”

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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Josef Ackermann

Chairman of the Board, Zurich Insurance Group Ltd; Former CEO, Deutsche Bank

“Ladies and gentlemen, when I was asked about an hour ago by Jean Claude Trichet if I would be willing to say a few words about trust I asked myself ‘Why ask a banker?’ – or even a former banker in my case.”

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Jean-Claude Trichet

Former President of the European Central Bank

“In my view, one of our major problem today is that entrepreneurs find themselves in a universe where they are not sure of the real “state of nature” as regards the real economy and of what Governments are likely to do in the US, in Europe and in the rest of the advanced economies.”

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Debate

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14:30 – 16:00 | Plenary session 6

“The future of the Middle East”

Introduction by Mehmet Ali Birand

Editor in Chief of CNN Turk and Chief Anchor for Kanal D main news

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Jean-David Levitte

Distinguished fellow, Brookings Institution ; Former Diplomatic Advisor and Sherpa of President Nicolas Sarkozy

“So, in this general feeling of an America slightly in retreat, I see an exception, which is Iran. Iran, because what is at stake is not only regional balance, it is also the world order.”

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Meir Sheetrit

Member of Parliament, Former Minister of Internal Affairs, Israel

“I believe that the best way to make peace with Israel is to talk through the Arab Initiative, which can make peace, not only with Palestinians, but with all the Arab states. “

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Edward Djerejian

Founding Director of James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, Former US Ambassador to Syria

“[…] I am convinced that we are in a post Assad era. When he will go, I cannot predict, but we are in the post Assad era.”

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Manuel Hassassian

Ambassador of Palestine to the United Kingdom

“Without major social transformation, I do not think we can talk about the Arab Spring as having a different political culture that could accommodate the politik real in the Middle East today. “

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Mona Makram Ebeid

Former Member of Parliament, Egypt, Distinguished Lecturer,American University in Cairo, Member of the National Council for Human Rights

“Yes, today we are faced with two Egypts which are no longer able to communicate, which refuse to recognise each other and which do not listen to each other. “

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Debate

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16:00 – 16:30 | Coffee break

16:30 – 18:00 | Plenary session 7

“Africa”

Introduction by Lionel Zinsou

Chairman of PAI Partners

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Mo Ibrahim

Chairman of Mo Ibrahim Foundation

“Definitely, governance, which should aim as using all available resources in the most efficient way in order to deliver the best possible to the citizens, is a critical ingredient. “

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Hakim Ben Hammouda

Special Advisor to the African Development Bank Group (AfDB)

“And it’s true that we consider the question of the continent’s resilience to be crucial. For us, it’s about Africa’s ability to withstand the shock of the global crisis. “

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Edem Kodjo

President of PAX AFRICANA, Former Prime Minister of Togo, Former Secretary General O.A.U (A.U), A.U Peace Ambassador

“Yes Africa is a land of paradoxes, yes Africa is a land with great ambitions.”

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Jean-Michel Severino

CEO of Investisseurs et Partenaires

“It occurred to me that Africa is still a UGO, an unidentified geopolitical object. When you see how people view the African continent, what is striking is that no one really knows how to deal with the continent. “

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Debate

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20:30 | Dinner debate

Introduction

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Adil Abd Al-Mahdi

Former Vice President of the Republic of Iraq

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Debate

“Speaking about the Middle East is not an easy job. It is difficult, even for us living in the region, maybe more so than you because you can see it from outside.”

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08:00 – 09:00 | Report from Parallel workshops

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

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Jacques Mistral

Special Advisor at Ifri

“The financial industry embarked upon strategies designed to create highly profitable, but high risk, portfolios, assuming, incorrectly as we have seen, that the liquidity which it required to operate safely could not evaporate so suddenly.”

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William Ramsay

Senior Advisor of the Center for Energy, Ifri; former Deputy Executive Director, International Energy Agency (IEA), former US Ambassador in Brazzaville

“The necessary decisions are not being taken, populations are not empowering democratically chosen solutions and the current depressed economic environment is aggravating an already bad situation.”

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Dominique Moïsi

Special Advisor at Ifri

“And the third theme actually consisted of saying that the major risk, over and above what had just been mentioned, was perhaps the refusal by leaders to take risks themselves compared to the present: what is known as the short-sightedness of governments.”

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Conclusion by Thierry de Montbrial

President and Founder of the WPC

09:00 – 11:00 | Plenary session 8

“General debate”

Introduction by Dominique Moïsi

Special Advisor at Ifri

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Han Sung-Joo

Former Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Korea

“The territorial disputes are about more than energy, more than fishing rights, and more, even, than geopolitics. It portends, I think, great danger, if unchecked, of a kind that Europe had to deal with before the Second World War.”

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Jim Hoagland

Contributing Editor to The Washington Post

“One of the most important parts of the IFRI world policy conference is the human factor. That is what struck me the most about this particular session.”

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Donald J. Johnston

Founding Partner, Heenan Blaikie; Former Secretary-General of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

“One of the things that worries me most are the results that came out of Doha. The reality is that we have not made progress on climate change. “

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Serguei Karaganov

Chairman of the Presidium of the Council on Foreign and Defense Policy

“Obviously, the energy at the conference is increasing. It brings new people. It brings new ideas and here we are. Leadership is alive. “

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Igor Yurgens

Chairman of the Management Board of the Institute of Contemporary Development, Moscow

“I will be bringing three things back from this conference. Firstly, it is exceptionally important for us in Europe and probably in the world to have a French speaking forum.”

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Wang Jisi

Dean of the School of International Studies, Peking University, and director of the Center for International and Strategic Studies, Peking University

“For instance, I see six imbalances in global trends: demographic, social, ecological, economic and financial, the imbalance between the need and supply of natural resources, and the imbalance of wealth distribution.”

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Panelists’ remarks

“‘Is Asia in 2012, Europe in 1912? Is the situation we are witnessing in Asia about to become what existed a century ago in Europe?’”

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Debate

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12:30 | Lunch and Departure

2013 Conference proceedings

14:30 – 15:30 | Opening session

H.S.H. Prince Albert II

Sovereign Prince of Monaco

Democracy cannot be imposed but must be built progressively according to each State’s history.

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Thierry de Montbrial

President and founder of the WPC

Regardless of whether today’s international system be described as zero-polar, bipolar or multipolar, the simple reality is that the most powerful states no longer wish or are no longer capable of exercising their power. It is, in my view, more constructive to focus on the ‘middle powers’.

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Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

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Ali Babacan

Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey

For many of our domestic reform efforts, the European Union has been a key external anchor. The standards, benchmarks and criteria that the European Union has for incoming countries are very important for us because it is a measure of quality of our reform efforts.

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Debate

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15:30 – 17:00 | Plenary session 1

“The state of the world economy and global governance”

Introduction by Nicolas Barré

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Kemal Dervis

We need to pay more attention to income distribution, to how growth is taking place and to how it is spreading through societies.

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Henri de Castries

We are probably seeing the end to the Westphalian states. Classical borders are becoming irrelevant in more and more areas.

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Jacob Frenkel

The world’s centre of gravity has moved and that businessmen and entrepreneurs were able to recognise and seize these opportunities.

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David de Rothschild

In 2014, there will be another round of stress tests and there will be another asset‑quality review. Therefore, I think that by the end of 2014, we will have a fairly stable environment in all this.

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Il SaKong

The G20 should have more frequent and structured meetings for finance deputies, finance ministers and Sherpas before the Summit. Leaders’ time is the scarcest resource in the world, so they cannot meet often.

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Pascal Lamy

We need to de‑monopolise international governance from the Westphalian system, from sovereign nation states. We need to look at greater diversity of public institutions.

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Debate

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17:00 – 17:45 | Plenary session 2

Mohammad Javad Zarif

We should never forget that trust is a two-way street. Today’s regional and international crises require every one of us to have a sense of responsibility and to cooperate with one other to rebuild peace and stability.

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Debate with Ali Ahani

Ambassador of Islamic Republic of Iran to France and to Monaco

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17:45 – 19:15 | Plenary session 3

“Middle East”

Introduction by Steven Erlanger

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Masood Ahmed

There has to be a focus on trying to give young people in particular some hope by giving them opportunities for employment in the short term. That means reallocating some spending towards job creation.

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Renaud Girard

I believe that our leaders have not grasped the fact that in Syria, a very deep and profound fracture has existed for a very long time between a party that I would describe as secular and a Muslim Brotherhood party.

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Bassma Kodmani

The djihadists’ best ally is the violence that was introduced by al-Assad. The djihadists’ best ally today is the chaos created by the regime.

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Mona Makram-Ebeid

For Egypt to advance, it has to go back to the slogan of the 1920s, which was ‘Religion is for God and the homeland is for all’. Otherwise, there is no future.

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Sergey Karaganov

Russia’s experience with Iranians has shown that they have been acting very constructively in calming crises in the former Soviet Central Asia and quite responsibly in calming crises in the Caucuses, including in Chechnya and elsewhere.

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Elisabeth Guigou

I believe that Europe must return, that Europe must abandon its navel-gazing and start to assert itself in the world again.

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Debate

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19:15 | Welcome cocktail

20:00 | Dinner debate

With Herman Van Rompuy

President of the European Council

The simple idea that people should have a say in their own governance has achieved a near universal status, and more of the world’s population lives in democratic countries than ever before in the history of the mankind.

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Debate

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08:00 – 09:45 | Plenary session 4

“Asia’s strengths and weaknesses”

Introduction by Michael Yeoh

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Bruno Lafont

Asia is rising and what is very interesting to see is the development of the cities in Asia. I think the most important trend in Asia today is harmonisation.

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Jin Roy Ryu

I think one of Asia’s weaknesses is that Asia does not have a strong leader or control tower like the United States in the Americas.

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Shotaro Oshima

Mr. Abe has put forward the case to the people that we should not have to be bogged down in deflationary mind-set and that we can change the economic environment and the outlook for the future by inflation target setting.

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Mayankote Kelath Narayanan

There exist two Asias today – both competing for space and attention. Economically, we have a dynamic, and to an extent, integrated Asia. In security terms, there is another Asia that appears dysfunctional, buffeted by powerful nationalisms and prone to irredentism.

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Anatoly Torkunov

Any diplomatic process is therefore only a tool to hedge risks by stopping North Korea from improving its nuclear arsenal and preventing nuclear proliferation. The basic underlying theory of the Russian policy of maintenance is the need for peaceful coexistence in the Korean Peninsula.

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Yang Jiemian

Strength lies in the open regionalism. Looking around the world it is only in Asia where regionalism is open.

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Debate

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09:45 – 11:15 | Plenary session 5

“The challenges of the cyberspace”

Paul Hermelin

The main challenge of the infosphere is the discontinuity between the majesty of international governance and the way technical innovation blossoms.

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Chang Dae-Whan

Interactions will be machine to machine. Society might prevail. We must be prepared for an end-to-end and machine-to-machine society.

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Meir Sheetrit

Having technology is not enough. There are many, many things that can cause damage in a surprising way if somebody decides to attack you. It is not enough therefore to have technology. You need to have the right warriors.

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Carl Bildt

A big battle ahead is going to be over whether we keep a global Internet and an open governance system or whether the Internet becomes balkanised. We will either have an open, transparent and dynamic Internet in the future or a closed, controlled and static one.

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Debate

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11:15 – 11:45 | Coffee-break

11:45 – 13:00 | Plenary session 6

“Whither the ‘European social model’?”

Introduction by Jim Hoagland

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Joaquín Almunia

We need to improve our tax systems to be consistent with both growth and the need to fund the welfare state, our social policies and the social model.

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Yves Leterme

Europe also has to be especially aware that, as the recent PISA report made clear, skills are the currency of the 21st Century and investments in social resiliency are therefore more important for Europe than investments in security.

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Jean Pisani-Ferry

Instead of having to bet on the future growth rate and to tell people a definite figure which they will expect to get, it should be recognised that the ability to provide pensions is linked to the performance of the economy.

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Didier Reynders

I think one-third of the next European Parliament could be comprised of Eurosceptics and populists who are against the European Union. If we do not take care of these issues at the European level we will have more and more difficulties. We need to politicise the European debate.

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Debate

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13:15 – 14:45 | Lunch debate

“The future of diplomacy”

Introduction by Jim Hoagland

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Hubert Védrine – Part 1

To me, the real question of diplomacy tomorrow and the day after tomorrow is, how can diplomacy be conducted in age that believes in transparency?

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Carl Bildt – Part 1

We feel the pulse of the world much more clearly and we can impact the pulse of the world more effectively with the new technologies.

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Hubert Védrine – Part 2

I think there needs to be an almost philosophical shift in civilisation by saying, “There are some cases when secrets, or the length of time a secret is kept, or conditions of secrecy, are justified.”

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Carl Bildt – Part 2

There now needs to be a kind of congruence between public diplomacy and the public image and the secret details and secret mechanics.

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Debate

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15:00 – 16:15 | Plenary session 7

“Destruction or metamorphosis of the legal order?”

Mireille Delmas-Marty

‘Coordinated sovereignism’ means that the separation of national orders would be gradually broken down by the circulation of norms and dialogue between judges, which would replace separation with coordination.

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Stephen Breyer

There must be a common rule that every country can follow. There’s a concept in law called comity that requires harmony. Easier said than done.

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Lord Mance

I have no sense at all that the United Kingdom’s legal system or we, its common lawyers, judges and courts, are about to be over-whelmed or lose our identity in the face of any outside threat.

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Jean-Marc Sauvé

I do not give much credence to the destruction theory in the sense of a collapse in juridical orders. Globalisation lays claim to just as many juridical rules as it seeks to topple, if not the reverse, and these rules must be able to find expression in juridical systems.

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16:30 – 19:30 | Parallel workshops

Workshop #1 – Energy and environment

Introduction by Christophe de Margerie

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Cécile Maisonneuve

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Maria van der Hoeven

At the global level we can see that the industrial sector is responsible for 37% of all energy savings in one of our new policy scenarios relative to the current policy scenarios, followed by transport at 31% and buildings at 26%.

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André Caillé

Any energy industry has to satisfy what we called then our “four As” criteria. First, energy has to be available; second, accessible; third, never forget that, affordable; and, fourth, it also has to be acceptable.

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William Ramsay

The US is on its way to energy, oil and gas self-sufficiency. I advisedly do not use the term ‘energy independence’.

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Debate

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Jun Arima

We need a smarter approach to do so, as well as a broader scope that features not only domestic but also global mitigation and a longer-term horizon with innovation.

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Kevin Sara

We are talking to our first clients in Europe and I can tell you that our biggest challenge is not technical. It is political and regulatory. The regulations are just not set up to transport electricity over long distances.

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Debate

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Conclusion by Christophe de Margerie

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Workshop #2 – The health and emerging risks

Introduction by James D. Wolfensohn

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Christian Bréchot

We must understand that we will never have an end of infectious disease. We have a reservoir of disease that is endless. The point is not to dream of suppressing infectious disease; the point is to adjust the follow-up and global governance of this problem.

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Richard Cooper

With modern technology and information and trade in weapons, we see increasingly that conflicts which historically would have been localised take on international significance.

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Daniel Dāianu

It is good for citizens to be stimulated, even assisted to become more self-reliant. However, the optimal solution cannot be by resorting to social Darwinism.

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Thomas Kirkwood

There is an enormous resource of mental capital in older people that simply goes to waste. It goes to waste because policies do not recognise how important it is to keep this mental capital engaged in society.

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James D. Wolfensohn

The issues of healthcare, which comes up with this, and of paying pensions to the aged just distorts the systems that we have had up to now. Nowhere is this more critical than in the USA at this time, but it will be a global issue.

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Debate

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Workshop #3 – Food security

Introduction by Jean-Yves Carfantan

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José Graziano Da Silva

Today, an estimated 840 million people suffer from chronic hunger and another 2 billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies. 26% of the world’s children are stunted. Malnutrition costs around 5% of the value of global growth domestic product.

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Christopher Delgado

There should be increased attention to risk management and greater resilience, and the policy incentives we have should be shifted to promoting triple wins, that is, more productivity, better resilience and mitigation all at the same time.

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Marcos Jank

Good policies for me are related to land property rights – which are extremely important in many countries – technology, productivity, gains in scale, and integration into food chains.

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Debate

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Mahama Zoungrana

The State alone, with all the good will in the world, cannot guarantee food security. In addition, civil society, which has a key role to play, but also and above all the private sector, must become increasingly involved.

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Debate

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Jane Karuku

African governments are not investing enough in African agriculture.

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Brent Habig

There are a lot of ways to do agriculture and have agricultural growth but not necessarily benefit smallholders or drive improvements in food security. That is our agenda, to try to find the opportunity to work with businesses when there is overlap with social goals and objectives.

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Debate

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Workshop #4 – Finance

Introduction by Jean-Claude Trichet

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John Lipsky

After all, one of the key problems highlighted by the crisis was not so much the details of regulation, but that many systemically-important institutions lay outside the regulatory framework.

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Jeffry Frieden

We need something that could be called governance; that is for something above the level of the nation state, for some attempt to either cooperate among national authorities or to create a supra-national entity that could try to deal with some of these cross-border externalities.

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Debate

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Benoît Cœuré

We need to make the single supervisory mechanism work in a way which is genuinely European, so we want the supervisory board not to be a committee of national supervisors but to become a European institution as part of the ECB.

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Marek Belka

We know from our own experience that if there is to be a real banking union the banks should be European, not national, but this is not easy.

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Debate

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Jacob Frenkel

Since the Central Bank must have the capabilities to respond very promptly to new developments, and since it must have timely and reliable information about the banking sector, it stands to reason that the responsibility for bank supervision should rest within the Central Bank.

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Il SaKong

The imminent US Fed’s tapering QE should be brought to the G20 process, more specifically, the G20’s MAP.

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Debate

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19:30 | Cocktail

20:30 | Gala dinner

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

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Laurent Fabius

Minister of Foreign Affairs of France

I personally do not think that China is becoming a warmonger. But it is a major power and a string of tensions could arise in the region in 2014. France will always work toward peace and security.

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Debate

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08:00 – 09:00 | Reports from parallel workshops

Cécile Maisonneuve

The world energy mix was made of 82% of fossil fuels thirty years ago; this figure remains the same today, and will decrease only to 75% in 2035. The real revolution will be to reach a truly different energy mix.

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Richard Cooper

Democratic political systems these days have great difficulty making forward-looking decisions that would head off serious risks in the future, so we are likely to be confronted with shocks which we are not well-situated to handle, especially in the financial area.

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Jean-Yves Carfantan

We need a climate smart agriculture that improves crop yields and livestock management to increase production, increases climate resilience of farming systems, reduces carbon emissions and increases soil carbon storage.

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Jeffrey Frieden

There is now a clearly greater role for the emerging markets in dealing with these global macroeconomic and financial problems, and there is more global recognition of the need for further cooperation.

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09:00 – 10:00 | Plenary session 8

“Towards a European Banking Union”

Introduction by Alessandro Merli

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Benoît Coeuré – Part 1

We need supervisors to have a European mandate instead of a national mandate, and that is why we have a single supervisory mechanism; we also need European banks to be in the hands of a European resolution authority when they are wound up, and that is also why we need a single resolution mechanism.

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Philipp Hildebrand – Part 1

It seems that something separate is going on, namely a fundamental reassessment of the risks in the European banking system,

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Constantin von Oesterreich – Part 1

Many important milestones have been reached on the way to the banking union, but implementation and execution are now the name of the game, and we are very much looking forward to getting a lot of engagement.

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Benoît Coeuré – Part 2

The asset quality review and the comprehensive assessment are the occasion for bringing them together, so it not only serves a stabilisation function, but also a macroeconomic function, in a sense, which is to recreate trust in the European banking system.

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Philipp Hildebrand – Part 2

Transparency will be a key part of this and will entail clear explanations of what monetary, stabilisation, regulatory and liquidity policies are, and we must try to separate these policies to the extent we can.

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Benoît Coeuré – Part 3

Banking supervisors should be accountable to parliaments and the general public. That is why we will have this supervisory board and the chair of the board.

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Constantin von Oesterreich – Part 2

Banks which are large enough to be in it cannot get out, and smaller banks are in it for specific reasons, so there is a level playing field

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Philipp Hildebrand – Part 3

Make sure the banks have sufficient capital so the uncertainties can be removed from the marketplace and they can start lending again. That will clearly be the key element from the macroeconomic perspective.

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Benoît Coeuré – Part 4

The single supervisory mechanism will aim to avoid the kind of negative feedback through banks we have seen in banks in some countries and that ultimately led to a need for financial assistance. Therefore, good single supervision is a protection for taxpayers.

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Debate

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Remarks from the panelists

10:00 – 10:45 | Plenary session 9

H.R.H. Prince Turki Al Faisal

Chairman of the King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies (KFCRIS)

The problem in Syria today is not only a tragedy, but is an act of negligence on the part of the world, which continues to watch the suffering of the Syrian people without taking steps to stop that suffering. It almost reaches the level of being criminal negligence on the part of the world community.

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Debate

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10:45 – 11:15 | Coffee-break

11:15 – 12:00 | Plenary session 10

Itamar Rabinovich

President of the Israel Institute, Distinguished Global Professor at New York University (NYU), Distinguished Fellow at the Brookings Institution and Professor Emeritus, Tel Aviv University

Demographically speaking, we are risking the future of the state as a Jewish state, and in terms of Israel’s international standing, we see a creeping delegitimisation, and these are two very dangerous developments for us.

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Debate

12h00 – 13h30 | Plenary session 11

“Africa”

Introduction by Jean-Michel Severino

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Jean-David Levitte

The African Union is willing to take responsibility for its own security issues, a job that is incumbent upon Africans. Europe needs to help Africa fulfil this desire.

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Mo Ibrahim

Some fragmentation is taking place in this new world, though I do not know why it has expressed itself in a more civilised and peaceful way through the ballot box in Europe, while sometimes it takes on a violent aspect in Africa.

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Titus Naikuni

As far as Somalia is concerned, Ethiopia and Kenya not only need to go into Somalia militarily, but also to do as much as they can to help to develop the human capacity to govern that country, because if you do not have a stable Somalia you will not have a stable Kenya or Ethiopia.

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Qu Xing

China’s noninterference policy does not mean indifference, that China needs the stability of Africa and that China is proceeding to improve the stability in promoting social and economic development instead of imposing its social model.

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Mostafa Terrab

Too many policies and too many business strategies disconnect the north of Africa from sub-Saharan Africa. Let us keep in mind that ten out of 22 Arab countries are in Africa, and some geopoliticians do not take that very much into consideration.

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Tidjane Thiam

I am arguing for the normalisation of Africa, so that people start treating it like any other place in the world, and if we get that we will be absolutely fine.

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Lionel Zinsou

Rates of return on capital are higher in Africa than on all the other continents. This means the misperception is not thinking that Africa is below average, it’s not knowing that Africa is above average.

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Conclusion by Jean-Michel Severino

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13:30 – 15:15 | Lunch debate

Introduction by Thierry de Montbrial

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Pauline Marois

Prime Minister of Quebec

In its political expression of Francophone expression in America, the State of Quebec is attempting to come to terms with the challenges as well as the advantages that arise from its status as a nation.

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Debate

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15:30 – 16:45 | Plenary session 12

“Politics and religions”

Introduction by Pierre Morel

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Bartholomew 1st

Contrary to what some may think, the politics of the 21st century are not determined by religion. On the contrary, politics has the upper hand over religion, transforming it into an instrument for its own use.

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Mircea Geoanā

And for the first time in centuries, we will have not only geoeconomic, geopolitical, technological and military competitors, we will have a formidable competitor whom we must treat with respect, because these are cultures and traditions which are so ancient that they deserve our respect

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Mohammed Sammak

We learned, and are still learning to oppose a notion of diversity that becomes a substitute for neighborhood and community. Diversity without a spirit of community leads to tribalism. Community without a spirit of diversity leads to alienation for all minorities.

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David Rosen

Religious leaders are in positions that represent the identities of the peoples, the belonging of the peoples, and if you do not address this issue of identity and belonging, it will come back to haunt you.

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Faisal Bin Muaammar

Religious leaders need to be careful how they relate to politics, but political leaders also need to be careful how they relate to religion.

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Marcelo Sanchez Sorondo

God created Man in the image of God, and so Man must live in a society. It is not only an individual image, it is also a social image.

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Debate

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16:45 – 18:45 | Plenary session 13

“General debate”

Introduction by Dominique Moïsi

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Titus Corlātean

Comparing the Balkan region to only 25 years ago, it is almost predictable, which is a fundamental qualitative step forward, because for all we know, tomorrow the region will be part of the European family.

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Igor Yurgens

So, we have two Russias at the moment: 20% of the population who want to move forward, to be contemporary and silent majority which is afraid to move forward and to open up.

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Jim Hoagland

The American administration has certainly reached out far more toward its adversaries than to some key allies, and that has consequences. It fails to build up a reserve of personal relationships that can be called on in moments of crisis and difficulties.

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Karl Kaiser

The Libyan crisis has shown, and it was a wake-up call, how insufficiently Europe was prepared to deal with a world in which America is no longer exactly as available as it was before.

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Yusuf Ziya Irbec

We have a very multidimensional culture in Turkey, and politicians should be prepared to understand all the dimensions of Christianity, Judaism, Islam, and all other religious groups. This is the basis for being an efficient leader in Turkey.

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Donald Johnston

Corruption has to be attacked on many fronts, but I just want to leave you with the fact that corruption is much more serious than we acknowledge.

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Carlos Pérez Verdía

Just as in the case of North America, Latin America has a lot of other issues and challenges, and the positive thing there with regard to drugs, security and human rights is that we are discussing these at a regional level.

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Steven Erlanger

I really worry that France, which already has a problem with its own self-image in the world in a Europe where Germany seems big and powerful, is slipping out of the second tier into the third, and that is the problem.

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Conclusion by Dominique Moïsi

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18:45 | Closing

19:30 | Informal dinner